In the lateral view, the pogonion
is the most anterior point on the mandible (Fig.
* Supramentale (B)--the deepest point in the midsagittal plane on the concavity between infradentale and pogonion
O primeiro e o pogonion
que e o ponto mais anterior do mento, isto e, o mais proeminente.
--Patron esqueletal segun McNamara (distancia entre el punto A y la perpendicular Na, distancia desde el pogonion
hasta la perpendicular Na, longitud efectiva del maxilar, longitud efectiva de la mandibula y altura anteroinferior de la cara).
Forward position of soft tissue pogonion
results in concomitant forward positioning of E plane.
The facial index was calculated by dividing the measure of the distance between the nasion (N) and pogonion
(Pog) points (that represent the facial height) by the measure of the interzygomatic distance (i.e., the facial width), multiplied by 100.
in cases where the chin is well positioned at the beginning of the treatment [1, 7], pogonion
kept in the same position to increase the lower facial height ; class II division II low-angle malocclusion uncorrected by orthodontic treatment alone, especially in patients that need advancement but have an excessive mental projection ; mandibular vertical alveolar deficiency; anterior open bite; mandibular ramus sagittal split osteotomy relapse; cases of condylar agenesis and hypoplasia; lateral open bite [4, 10]; and in cases that need a profound change in the mentolabial sulcus [1, 11].
The facial points pogonion
(Pg), labial commissure (Co), gonion (Go), outer eye corner (C), and tragus (T) were marked with indelible ink; measurements of swelling were performed with a millimetric ruler from the facial planes (T-Co, T-Po, C-Go, and Go-Co).
The skeletal relationship was taken based on the tracings of the facial depth angle, which is composed of the Frankfort plane--the horizontal line drawn between Po (porion) and the Or point (orbitale)--and the intersection with the facial plane--the vertical line drawn between point N (nasion) and Pg (pogonion
), whose standard is 90[degrees] [+ or -] 3[degrees]--.
(Pog): Length between bony Pog and its horizontal projection (Pog') over the vertical passing through soft tissue pogonion
Projections of lower lip anterior (LLA-TVL), soft tissue B' point (B'-TVL), and soft tissue pogonion
(Pog'-TVL) displayed significant differences among cleft and NC patients (p<0.05) with no difference between UCLP and BCLP patients.
Facial swelling measurements were taken by marking 6 points on the face on the following facial landmarks; mandibular angle, tragus, lateral canthus of eye, alar base, lip commissure and pogonion
. With the mandibular angle as the base point by using 3-0 silk suture to follow the contour of the face, linear distances to the other landmarks were noted.