Therefore determination of polleniferous flora in a given area is very important for development of any apiculture industry (Sajwani, Farooq, & Bryant, 2014).
The importance of these plant taxa as polleniferous plant were also reported by Layek, Nandi, & Karmakar (2016) form West Bengal and Suryanarayana et al.
The present study was undertaken to identify the polleniferous flora of the study area as well as floral fidelity behaviour of the bee species.
It is possible to identify the main melliferous and polleniferous
plants exploited by bees in a delimited region through the identification of the pollen types found in the bee products (Barth, 1989).
scoparia were prepared from polleniferous
materials and then their extracts were prepared as described above .
These include at least five morphotypes of Glossopteris leaves and the glossopterid ovuliferous organs Lidgettonia africana, Rigbya arberioides and Plumsteadia gibbosa, and the glossopterid polleniferous
organ Eretmonia natalensis.
pedunculate (15-30 cm), polleniferous strobili, microsporophylls with
pedunculate (2-5 cm), polleniferous strobili, microsporophylls with
For example, a preference for the polleniferous
flowers of some dioecious orgynodioecious species could be due to the greater levels of nectar these flowers also offer (e.g., Kay et al.
The tropical genus Begonia comprises predominantly monoecious species in which the rewardless female flowers often bear a striking resemblance to the polleniferous
male flowers (Agren and Schemske 1991; Schemske et al.
Although boundary-layer effects will likely be reduced for anthers and microsporangia, it seems likely that wind gusts play a strong role in pollen liberation, via agitation of shoots bearing polleniferous
organs and overcoming the reduced but still-present boundary-layer effects.
These plants may then experience less geitonogamy, because geitonogamy increases with the proportion of polleniferous
staminate-phase flowers probed by a hummingbird as it visits a plant.