variable rates from 0 to 75% of seeds of each mother plant as observed by Danner et al.
Tumor Markers and Genetic Mutations Commonly Associated With Germ Cell and Sex Cord Stromal Tumors Tumor Tumor Marker(s) Genetic Mutation Dysgerminoma LDH, [+ or -]HCG Yolk sac tumor AFP Immature teratoma [+ or -]AFP Embryonal HCG, [+ or -]AFP, [+ or -]LDH carcinoma Choriocarcinoma HCG, [+ or -]LDH Polyembryony
HCG, [+ or -]AFP Mixed germ cell [+ or -]HCG, [+ or -]AFP, [+ or -]LDH Granulosa cell Inhibin, estrogen FOXL2 Sertoli-Leydig Testosterone DICER1 Abbreviations: AFP, [alpha]-fetoprotein;HCG, human chorionic gonadotropin;LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.
These various intramolluscan stages undergo polyembryony
and affect the growth pattern of the infected host, influencing its physiology, metabolism, fecundity, and survival rate [23, 24].
cauliflora) the average polyembryony
rate of 29.2% and 41.3% in seeds stored, being able to verify up to 5 seedlings per seed, where normally one has a zygote embryo, formed by fertilization and the rest of embryos are asexual (formed by apomixia), being these clones identical to the mother plant.
The seeds of Aspidosperma polyneuron display polyembryony
, i.e., they commonly show more than one developed embryo, and smaller ones exhibit different sizes and stages of development.
Traditional breeding based on the drought tolerance has been always the important strategy in citrus, but it is much more time-consuming because of its complex reproductive biology, such as high heterozygosity, apomixis, polyembryony
, cross- and self-incompatibility, and long juvenility.
Citrus germplasm characterization and improvement was carried out but with a little success and the factors may include characters associated with reproductive biology of the species like prolonged juvenile period, great interspecific fertility, apomictic reproduction and polyembryony
(Corazza-Nunes et al., 2002).
, or the production of multiple offspring from a single zygote, is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom.
opuntiarum is a gregarious parasitoid, its potential polyembryony
is under investigation, together with the oviposition behavior of females.
Other chapters look at pollination, nectar, reproductive hormones, self-sterility, and polyembryony
We observed polyembryony
in a large number of diaspores, causing each diaspore to originate up to three seedlings (Figure 4).