described the cancer stem cell properties of polyploidy
giant cancer cells (PGCC) and presented evidence from the literature showing that tumor budding and micropapillary pattern are recognized indicators of tumor aggressiveness in colorectal cancer.
Binucleated hepatocytes and nucleomegaly are the result of polyploidy
It is a poisonous alkaloid that is widely used for polyploidy
induction (Ade and Rai, 2010).
Astyanax have presented an extensive diversity in the chromosome number and karyotype formula, both intra- and interspecifically, besides the occurrence of B chromosomes and natural polyploidy
for some populations (Malacrida et al., 2003; Gross et al., 2004; Kantek et al., 2007; Peres et al., 2009; Santos et al., 2012).
[sup], Chromosome aneuploidy and polyploidy
consist of more than 96% of chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion and X, Y, 13, 16, 18, 21, and 22 are frequently involved.
The main type of spontaneous karyotype disorders in somatic cells are different genomic and chromosomal mutations (numerical variations)--aneuploidy and polyploidy
. The creation of aneuploidy cells to animals preferably occurs equally at the expense of loss and due to no disjunction chromosomes during mitosis process.
High chromosome numbers in the ferns have been interpreted in two ways: the first is that it is the result of repeated polyploidy
speciation events (with progenitor extinction); the second suggested that it is the result of selection for a greater number of linkage groups to reduce problems of homozygosity, in other words, they are primitively high (Soltis & Soltis 1990).
* New plants were released, including Roma tomatoes, Topcrop and Tendercrop beans, the first multiple-disease-resistant strawberry Surecrop, the first tetraploid Easter and Asiatic lilies, which showed the possibilities of polyploidy
in lilies, and Merion, a more stress-tolerant Kentucky bluegrass.
Indeed, several authors have suggested the possibility of multiple origins of polyploidy
in the gray treefrog complex (Chaffin and Trauth, 1987; Hillis et al., 1987; Ptacek et al., 1994).
One of the most interesting features of the genus is the variability in the number of chromosomes, polyploidy
and hybridization; in contrast, only Idaeobatus, Dalibarda, and Anoplobatus subgenera are predominantly diploid, whilst Dalibardastrum, Malachobatus, and Orobatus are exclusively polyploid (THOMPSON, 1995, 1997).
Those abnormally large rats - the result of a rare chromosome condition called polyploidy
- were never caught.