Birch's book sends also a warning call to his colleagues, whom he believes to have been far too prone to rely on a rhetorically charged notion that turned from a proud self- descriptor into a dubious "pejorative term in the 1980s" and that is now far too commonplace and polysemic to be analytically apt (6).
What the book does confirm is that the polysemic notion of network has become central to various disciplines, way beyond media studies, whether it is used as a tool or criticized as an ideology or, simply, as a confusing term.
Faced with such a polysemic term, Geertz (3) states that: "Eclecticism is an autofrustration, not because there is only one direction to go with advantage, but because there are many: it is necessary to choose" (Geertz, 1989, p.4).
However, development is again what psychologists and linguists call a very polysemic or multi-meaning concept and it is not merely a state of infrastructure uplift but more importantly a state of mental and behavioural sophistication.
Examining kuqing xi ("dramas of bitter emotion"), such as the series Crying Your Heart Out, which depicts the tales of laid-off women, Kong asserts that emotions of suffering impart these dramas with a "polysemic or ambivalent meaning" (p.