play critical roles in substrate deposition and nutrient cycling in reef ecosystems (de Goeij et al.
Many groups of marine invertebrates (e.g., annelids, bryozoans, cnidarians, crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes, poriferans
etc.) are recognized as epizoans on a wide variety of other mobile and sessile invertebrates, mainly crustaceans, xiphosurans and mollusks (see Mori & Manconi, 1990; Gili, Abello, & Villanueva, 1993; Key, Jeffries, Voris, & Yang, 1996; Villegas, Stotz, & Laudien, 2005; Fernandez-Leborans, 2010; Farrapeira & Calado, 2010; Lima, Queiroz, Bravo de Laguna, & Mioso, 2014; Lima, Queiroz, Oliveira, Christoffersen, & Guimaraes, 2016; Machado et al., 2013; Romero et al., 2013).
That ctenophores appear to have diverged earlier than placozoans and, possibly, also poriferans
, came as a surprise because ctenophores appear to be much more complex (Ryan et al., 2013; Marlow and Arendt, 2014; Halanych, 2015; Jekely et al., 2015).
(2014) analyzes the updated list of species reported for Easter and Salas y Gomez islands and shows high levels of endemism for the majority of the taxonomic groups, with mollusks and poriferans
exhibiting the highest levels overall (33%-34%).
However, the distinction between these knowledge systems is not accentuated, since science itself has also classified poriferans
as plants for centuries.
During the Paleozoic era Poriferans
accounted for much of the benthic biomass (39).
THE VIBRANT CORAL ACCRETIONS, PORIFERANS
AND pulpy anemones of a tropical reef or the mossy, flower-spangled turf of an alpine meadow uprooted in sections from its tranquil bed and draped in vertical display like some ponderous plush tapestry: on first appearance, the wall-mounted component of Synthetic Reality--ceramic artist Susan Beiner's recent foray into the installation format--breathes, heaves and palpitates like living tissue resected from the writhing body of nature.
Aiming to resolve these controversies, a group of international scientists led by Herve Philippe (Universite de Montreal, Canada), Gert Worheide (LMU Munich, Germany) and Michael Manuel (University of Paris, France) performed the most comprehensive study to date and investigated 128 genes from a total of 55 species - including nine poriferans
, eight cnidarians, three ctenophores and the single known species of placozoans.
Dolmer (2002) observed reduced numbers of poriferans
, echinoderms, anthozoans, molluscs, crustaceans, and ascidians in dredged areas four months after dredging for mussels.