The term hypopituitarism denotes the deficiency of one or more of the hormones of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland
whereas, panhypopituitarism is defined as the loss of all the pituitary hormones and the term is often used in clinical practice to describe patients with deficiency in growth hormone (GH), gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin.
Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus is associated with abnormal blood supply to the posterior pituitary gland
caused by vascular impairment of the inferior hypophyseal artery system.
(2) Touch preparations may be the least familiar to pathologists but have the advantage of excellent cytologic detail and usually readily allow distinction between pituitary adenoma and normal anterior or posterior pituitary gland
, based on the abundant number of cells that exfoliate from pituitary adenomas with a disrupted acinar pattern and the usual absence of large numbers of shed cells from either normal anterior or posterior gland.
An ectopic posterior pituitary gland
is a rare condition and may present with an empty pituitary fossa, hypoplasia or absence of the infundibular stalk and resultant short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. It may be associated with septo-optic dysplasia, Chiari I malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Kallmann sydrome and peri-ventricular heterotopias.[1,2] The location of the ectopic lobe can vary, but it is most commonly located along the median eminence in the floor of the third ventricle.[1,2]
The posterior pituitary gland
or neurohypophysis secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (Table 1).
Oxytocin is a nine amino-acid peptide that is synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
, in close proximity to neurons that synthesize and secrete vasopressin.