With epileptic seizures being mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, the agent is a highly selective, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist that reduces neuronal hyperexcitation by targeting glutamate activity at AMPA receptors on postsynaptic
Electrical events called "action potentials" cause the neuron to release a chemical neurotransmitter into a small space, called the synaptic cleft, between it and a neighboring (postsynaptic
buccal cells, B34 and B40 produce chloride-mediated rapid inhibitory postsynaptic
potentials (IPSPs) that are desensitized by GABA and the [GABA.sub.A] agonist muscimol, blocked by the [GABA.sub.A] antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline, and augmented by the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (Jing et al., 2003).
Blockade of postsynaptic
muscarinic receptors reduces the effects of acetylcholine, whereas blockade of presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors causes an increase in acetylcholine release (4).
N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA) receptors are tetrameric structures (8), consist of Grin1, Grin2 (A-D) and Grin3 (A-B) subunits (9), and mediates postsynaptic
[Ca.sup.2+] influx in dendritic spines (3).
While riluzole's mechanism of action is not fully understood, in clinical studies it has been shown repeatedly to modulate glutamate neurotransmission by inhibiting both glutamate release and postsynaptic
glutamate receptor signaling.
Pre-clinical studies have shown that chronic treatment with Bryostatin-1 rescues young Fragile X mice from the disorder phenotypes, including normalization of most Fragile X abnormalities in: 1) hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression; 2) postsynaptic
density-95 levels; 3) transformation of immature dendritic spines to mature synapses; 4) densities of the presynaptic and postsynaptic
membranes, and; 5) spatial learning and memory.
Different mechanisms that occur during the neural pathway, such as patterns of interacting waves  low threshold Na+ spikes and high threshold Ca+ spikes [3,4], postsynaptic
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) impairment of mitochondrial transport [5-7], have been postulated to drive the specialized intercellular junction in which a nerve impulse passes to excitable cells, the synapse.
Extracellular recordings were then performed to measure the field excitatory postsynaptic
potential in the hippocampal slices.
As the dose increases, lumateperone also serves as a mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine receptor phosphoprotein modulator with dual properties, acting at the level of the dopamine D2 receptor both as a presynaptic partial agonist and a postsynaptic
with [E.sub.i] = [E.sub.i](t), t [greater than or equal to] 0 and [I.sub.j] = [I.sub.j](t), t [greater than or equal to] 0 as Poisson processes with rates [[lambda].sub.E,i](t) and [[lambda].sub.I,j](t), a > 0 and b > 0 being the magnitude of each excitatory postsynaptic
potential (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic
potential (IPSP); a cell receives excitatory postsynaptic
potentials (EPSPs) at p synapses and inhibitory postsynaptic
potentials (IPSPs) at q inhibitory synapses.