So, proposals that allow for rational mismatches between higher-order and first-order attitudes seem to rely on an externalist notion of rationality that swings free from criticizability and praiseworthiness
. This is not the notion of rationality I am concerned with in this paper, since I am working under the assumption that there is an intimate relation between rationality and criticizability.
Interestingly, the Magna Mater and her barge do not appear in this reference, although we may infer their role since it was Claudia Quinta's ability to rescue the Magna Mater's barge that made manifest her praiseworthiness
. (14) However, without some direct reference to the ship incident, all that can be proven with this passage is that Claudia Quinta was known to be virtuous in Cicero's day.
At the same time, it provides a standard for discerning the praiseworthiness
of a given subject for orators and audiences alike.
The jurisdiction of the man within, is founded altogether in the desire of praiseworthiness
, and in the aversion to blame-worthiness; in the desire of possessing those qualities, and performing those actions, which we love and admire in other people; and in the dread of possessing those qualities, and performing those actions, which we hate and despise in other people (III, ii, 32; Smith 1984, p.
ACTIVITY IN EARNING FOR SEEKING SUSTENANCE AND THE DIFFERENCE THEREIN WITH REGARD TO ITS PRAISEWORTHINESS
AND BLAMEWORTHINESS (76)
(3) "Courageous," for example, describes a particular kind of character (able to face danger when necessary, etc.) and to indicate moral praiseworthiness
. However, much ink has been spilled over whether the "thickness" of such concepts is essential or conventional.
My understanding of PAP in this and other recent papers is shaped by the following assumptions: first, I take doings to cover not only actions, but also refrainings and omissions; so, I'll consider avoiding or omitting to do something, or refraining from doing it, as a way of "doing otherwise"; second, mental acts, and particularly decisions, are included under the scope of doings; third, I'll restrict PAP to moral blameworthiness, leaving aside praiseworthiness
; (1) finally, I'll take PAP to refer only to morally significant ("robust", in John Fischer's terms) APs, roughly, APs whose availability to an agent is explanatorily relevant to the moral responsibility she bears, if any.
Suppose we should accept the claims I have been urging about (1) the independence of collective moral responsibility and assessment from individual moral responsibility and assessment when the individual is or could become a member of the collective, (2) the fact that the moral constraints in deontological morality should be understood as defined in terms of counterfactual dependence not actual causation, and (3) the relevance of motive and intention in determining the permissibility status of what agents do as well as the moral praiseworthiness
and blameworthiness of agents in doing what they do (or omit).
Within the domain of faith-based (eternal blessing), belief-based (multicultural valuable humaneness praiseworthiness
), ritual-based optimism (ceremonial hopeful-based practices), and spiritual-based (conscience moral and earthly ethical societal nicety virtues) of the life-span, we must not ignore the efficacy of religious faith, multicultural values, ritual ceremonies, and ethical and moral psychological conditions of patients' transmutation expectations through medical care services.
Physical inability to do some action excuses failure to do it; the degree of blameworthiness or praiseworthiness
depends on the strength of the causal influences on the agent to do or not to do the action.
Be that as it may, the sort of problem that occurs with the definition of fallacy is one that should be expected in the first edition of any textbook as ambitious as this one, and in the end it takes nothing away from the praiseworthiness
of Battersby and Bailin's efforts here.
Smith said that people seek praise and praiseworthiness
and try to avoid blame and blameworthiness, not least in the marketplace.