zontran: selective pre-emergence
and post-emergence herbicide intended for the control of annual and cereal weeds in grain crops.
spray be applied within 24 hours after sowing to address weeds problem.
Sulfentrazone, diclosulam, and S-metolachlor are pre-emergence
herbicides frequently applied to soybean crops.
The farmers would get maximum benefits by applying herbicides at pre-emergence
and post emergence periods of weeds adopting the cropping system-based weed management methods both in dry-land farming and wet-land farming of crops.
After planting (up to three days later), use a pre-emergence
herbicide such as Dual gold to prevent the weed seeds from emergence.
In conclusion, line spacing of 60 cm, the application of pendimethalin herbicide as pre-emergence
, once manual weeding, and black plastic mulch proved to be the best integrated weed management strategy for enhancing the phenology of tomato crop.
Also, they will advice farmers on appropriate use of pre-emergence
and post-emergence herbicides, mobilize village seed entrepreneurs (VSEs) and farmer groups for a step-down training on weed management, advice farmers on calibration and proper mixing of herbicides, inform farmers the importance of wearing personal protective equipment, and advice farmers on the use of appropriate dosage in herbicide application and that an overdose of herbicides is harmful and not beneficial because it can lead to environmental pollution, resistance by the weeds, and even economic loss.
Sulfentrazone is registered for soybean crop in pre-emergence
conditions (MAPA, 2018).
However, a pre-emergence
spray over the newly planted seedlings to the planting hole and a strip next to the plastic will help with early weed-control.
The treatments consisted of ten different weed management practices viz., [T.sub.1]: Weedy check, [T.sub.2]: Hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS (weed free check), [T.sub.3]: Pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg a.i [ha.sup.-1] as pre-emergence
application at 3-5 DAS, [T.sub.4]: Orthosulfamuron @ 100 g a.i [ha.sup.-1] as pre-emergence
application at 3-5 DAS, [T.sub.5]: Orthosulfamuron @ 100 g a.i [ha.sup.-1] as post-emergence application at 20-25 DAS, [T.sub.6]: Ethoxysulfuron @ 20 g a.i [ha.sup.-1] post-emergence application at 20-25 DAS, [T.sub.7]: Metsulfuron methyl + Chlorimuron ethyl @ 4 g a.i [ha.sup.-1] as post-emergence application at 20-25 DAS, [T.sub.8]: [T.sub.3] followed by [T.sub.5], [T.sub.9]: [T.sub.3] followed by [T.sub.6], [T.sub.10]: [T.sub.3] followed by [T.sub.7].
(2010), who studied the phytotoxic effects of the herbicide 2,4-D on maize in pre- and post-emergence applications, and found that, with the increase of doses in pre-emergence
, plants tended to reduce their size, while in the post-emergence application plants showed greater values of height.
The results indicated that pre-emergence
applications of imazethaphyr, pre- and post-emergence applications of imazamox, suppressed dodder during the first year after application; however, the effect decreased in the following years.