Washington, March 10 (ANI): In a new study, scientists have determined that if carbon dioxide (CO2) reaches double pre-industrial
levels, coral reefs can be expected to not just stop growing, but also to begin dissolving all over the world.
The contributors of these 15 articles intend to prevent further fragmentation through such examples as reviews of the changing roles of the urban in Asia, an examination of Batavia's rise and fall in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, studies of how colonialism affected the development of ports in Mexico and how urban sanitation was developed in pre-industrial
Japan, analyses of public health care in Chile, the development of Australian capital cities in the nineteenth century, and a review of the City Beautiful movement as interpreted by Ralston, Phelan and O'Shaughnessy.
Drawing heavily on recent anthropological work on these ancient but imperiled survivals from the pre-industrial
, pre-scientific era, Scott builds a generally cogent case for their social resonance and ecological sustainability.
The plan is to scale up rapidly into a worldwide enterprise to reverse the build-up of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main cause of global warming, in the atmosphere and eventually bring it back to pre-Industrial
(In a broader sense it is less surprising, as China historians have always been more conscious of European comparisons than vice versa.) Thus Wong's analysis challenges the current trend to see the Industrial Revolution in terms less of a "revolution" and more of continuity with pre-industrial
Like in any other pre-industrial
society, power relations in 18th century Spain were determined by the functioning of extensive networks of patrons and clients.
Carole Shammas, The Pre-industrial
Consumer in England and America (Oxford, 1990), 225-60.
In this often impressive work, Professor Vassberg aims to disprove a "tenacious myth of the modern world" - namely, the myth that "pre-industrial
villages were essentially stable communities whose inhabitants rarely ventured beyond their own territory." (p.
Although Martin debunks the notion that pre-industrial
leisure reflected the harmonious community of contemporary observers' memories, Killing Time shows that industrialization spawned more commercial forms of leisure such as operas and circuses, which also transformed pre-existing holidays, such as the Fourth of July.
The clothier's wife and other household members had essential roles in cloth production, and these manufacturing households' business practices showed a pattern not of paternalism, but of a healthy respect for the claims of a largely independent body of cloth makers (Smail here importantly problematizes the too-easy identification between "pre-industrial
" and "paternalistic").
The overarching thesis is that the patterns of life of artisans and workers right down to the late nineteenth century were forged not only by new economic dynamics but also by pre-industrial
social forms that people used, adapted, and even strengthened in order to try to organize their lives.