Limb defects include radial dysplasia or aplasia, hand deviation, preaxial
polydactyl, syndactyl, and rudimentary or absent thumb (Kaplan & Hudgins, 2008).
Why, two and a half millennia after philosophical thought emerged in societies all around the world (Karl Jaspers' "Axial Age", 2010), and three centuries after the Age of Enlightenment, do Indonesians appear to be still so deeply "preaxial
?" Why do they still seemingly live in a "sacred cosmos" even while they enjoy the freedoms of modernity?
This condition results in additional fingers and toes in humans and animals. There are three main types of the condition: ulnar or postaxial polydactyly or small finger duplication, which is the most common form of the condition; radial or preaxial
polydactyly or thumb duplication, which occurs one in every 1,000 to 10,000 live births; central polydactyly, which is the rarest.
(1-4) Polydactyly is postaxial (the extra ray on the lateral side of the foot) almost 79% of the time and preaxial
(15%) when the polydactyly is on the medial (tibial) side of the limb.
There is a preaxial
and postaxial reduction in limbs that occurred.
Thereafter, Chen and Yu  have found that, the preaxial
load increases the critical impulsive velocity for the tensile tearing failure mode and makes the beam more prone to failure due to transverse shear failure mode.
Cephalic vein (also called the antecubital vein) is a superficial vein of the preaxial
border of the upper limb and is clearly visible in light-skinned individuals .
A new multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation syndrome with preaxial
brachydactyly, hyperphalangism, deafness and orodental anomalies.
On the preaxial
side of the limb bud, thumb duplication occurs in a great variation.
stroemia, the shape of the third segment is somewhat shoe shaped in lateral view, with the dorsal (preaxial
) side of the segment longer than the ventral (postaxial) side.