While considered within the parameters of courtship, these norms nonetheless condoned--even codified through customs such as the singing of antiphonal love songs at festivals--young peoples' ardent pursuit of sexual contact premaritally
. This illumination is two-fold.
According to Pisarowitz the couple was already pressed for time, because "the bride was already pregnant and either in 1760 or early 1761 gave birth to her first child 'Ernst Leuthgeb' who had evidently been fathered premaritally
" ("deren evident vorehelich gezeugter Erstspross).
In 24 families, carrier screening was performed premaritally
or at the time of other pregnancy testing (e.g.
For women, those who didn't live-in before their first marriage were more likely to survive to the 20-year marriage mark than those who did live together premaritally
(57 percent versus around 45 percent, respectively).
This great mixing of young adults spawned massive changes in sexual relations, ranging from a rise in the proportion of premaritally
conceived pregnancies among whites and blacks alike to the emergence of egalitarian "companionate" marriages.
Of these, 90,530 individuals were screened premaritally
. The frequencies of beta thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins were found to be 3% and 0.6%, respectively, in this group.
does indeed influence the marital quality of the children