In this regard, Drachman (1992) provides a broad framework of three stages of migration consisting of premigration
and departure, transit, and resettlement.
In this way, youth in these focus groups actively challenged the refugee identities constructed in social and news media about them, with its unidimensional stereotypes and notable silence about their premigration
self (Kyriakides et al.
Mental health effects of premigration
trauma and postmigration discrimination on refugee youth in Canada.
These components include but are not limited to "premigration
exposure to the mainstream culture, residence in an ethnic neighborhood, willingness to seek language education, and frequency of contact with individuals from the mainstream culture." (31)
(24) That detailed retention fit these groups' sense of mission to retain premigration
traditions in America.
Explicating on how premigration
homeland politics may influence the political formation of student migrants from Taiwan in the 1960s and 1970s, Cheng (2017) finds Taiwanese student associations played a vital role in building networks of friendship and support for the Taiwanese-identified versus Chinese-identified students.
Refugees from various countries of origin have distinct kinds and interval of exposure to conceivably traumatic events and premigration
conditions, in addition to cultural dissimilarities as a reaction to stressful experiences.
The healthy immigrant effect, which is the overall good physical and mental health that new immigrants typically enjoy upon arrival to the host country, implies that the premigration
and the migration processes themselves, although stressful, may not inflict lasting negative psychological or physical effect; alternatively, the hope and optimism often associated with resettlement may offset the negative effects (Kirmayer et al., 2011).
Research reported by Bettencourt (2001) documents the wide range of violences faced by Canadian newcomers (e.g., poverty, police harassment, racism and discrimination, and traumatic premigration
experiences such as genocide).
As Eisenberg remarks (controverting the tabula rasa approach to immigrant Jews), "premigration
experiences influenced not only the decision of immigrants to settle in the colonies but also their degree of success once there" (224).
As part of the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria initiative, CDC is working with interagency partners to expand premigration
TB screening beyond immigrants and refugees (10).