preposition


Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to preposition: prepositional phrase

preposition

Prepositions are used to express the relationship of a noun or pronoun (or another grammatical element functioning as a noun) to the rest of the sentence. The noun or pronoun that is connected by the preposition is known as the object of the preposition.
Some common prepositions are in, on, for, to, of, with, and about, though there are many others.
Continue reading...

preposition

a word governing and usually preceding a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element; examples of prepositions are in, on, by, to, from, since, for, of: Where did you come from? What shelf did you put it on? That’s what it’s for.
Not to be confused with:
proposition – a proposal; a suggestion of something to be considered, adopted, etc.: a proposition of marriage or sexual relations

prep·o·si·tion 1

 (prĕp′ə-zĭsh′ən)
n. Abbr. prep.
A word or phrase placed typically before a substantive and indicating the relation of that substantive to a verb, an adjective, or another substantive, as English at, by, with, from, and in regard to.

[Middle English preposicioun, from Old French preposicion, from Latin praepositiō, praepositiōn-, a putting before, preposition (translation of Greek prothesis), from praepositus, past participle of praepōnere, to put in front : prae-, pre- + pōnere, to put; see apo- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: It was John Dryden who first promulgated the doctrine that a preposition may not be used at the end of a sentence, probably on the basis of a specious analogy to Latin. Grammarians in the 1700s refined the doctrine, and the rule became a venerated maxim of schoolroom grammar. There has been some retreat from this position in recent years, however—what amounts to a recognition of the frequency with which prepositions end sentences in English. In fact, English syntax not only allows but sometimes even requires final placement of the preposition, as in We have much to be thankful for and That depends on what you believe in. Efforts to rewrite such sentences to place the preposition elsewhere can have stilted and even comical results, as is demonstrated in the saying (often attributed, probably falsely, to Winston Churchill) "This is the kind of pedantic nonsense up with which I will not put." · Even sticklers for the traditional rule can have no grounds for criticizing sentences such as I don't know where she will end up and It's the most curious book I've ever run across. In these examples, up and across are adverbs (or more properly, what linguists call particles), not prepositions. One sure sign that this is so is that these examples cannot be transformed into sentences with prepositional phrases. It is simply not grammatical English to say I don't know up where she will end and It's the most curious book across which I have ever run.

pre·po·si·tion 2

also pre-po·si·tion (prē′pə-zĭsh′ən)
tr.v. pre·po·si·tioned, pre·po·si·tion·ing, pre·po·si·tions also pre-po·si·tioned or pre-po·si·tion·ing or pre-po·si·tions
To position or place in position in advance: artillery that was prepositioned at strategic points in the desert.

preposition

(ˌprɛpəˈzɪʃən)
n
(Grammar) a word or group of words used before a noun or pronoun to relate it grammatically or semantically to some other constituent of a sentence. Abbreviation: prep
[C14: from Latin praepositiō a putting before, from pōnere to place]
ˌprepoˈsitional adj
ˌprepoˈsitionally adv
Usage: The practice of ending a sentence with a preposition (Venice is a place I should like to go to) was formerly regarded as incorrect, but is now acceptable and is the preferred form in many contexts

prep•o•si•tion1

(ˌprɛp əˈzɪʃ ən)

n.
a member of a class of words that are typically used before nouns, pronouns, or other substantives to form phrases with adverbial, nominal, or adjectival function, and that typically express a spatial, temporal, or other relationship, as on, by, to, with, or since.
[1350–1400; Middle English < Latin praepositiō putting before, a prefix, preposition. See pre-, position]
prep`o•si′tion•al•ly, adv.
usage: The common “rule” that a sentence should not end with a preposition is transferred from Latin, where it is an accurate description of practice. But the Latin rule does not fit English grammar. In speech, the final preposition is normal and idiomatic, esp. in questions: What are we waiting for? Where did he come from? You didn't tell me which floor you worked on. In writing, the problem of placing the preposition arises most often when a sentence ends with a relative clause in which the relative pronoun (that; whom; which; etc.) is the object of a preposition. In edited writing, esp. formal writing, when a pronoun other than that introduces a final relative clause, the preposition usu. precedes its object: He abandoned the project to which he had devoted his whole life. I finally telephoned the representative with whom I had been corresponding. If the pronoun is that, or if the pronoun is omitted, then the preposition must occur at the end: The librarian found the books that the child had scribbled in. There is the woman he spoke of.

pre•po•si•tion2

or pre-po•si•tion

(ˌpri pəˈzɪʃ ən)

v.t.
to position in advance or beforehand.
[1960–65; pre- + position]

preposition

A word used before a noun or pronoun to mark its relation to the rest of the sentence, such as “to” in “I went to the beach.”
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.preposition - a function word that combines with a noun or pronoun or noun phrase to form a prepositional phrase that can have an adverbial or adjectival relation to some other word
closed-class word, function word - a word that is uninflected and serves a grammatical function but has little identifiable meaning
2.preposition - (linguistics) the placing of one linguistic element before another (as placing a modifier before the word it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix before the base to which it is attached)
linguistics - the scientific study of language
position, place - an item on a list or in a sequence; "in the second place"; "moved from third to fifth position"
Translations
حَرْف جَر
předložka
præposition
prepozicio
prepositio
forsetning
prielinksnis
prievārds
prepoziţie
predložka
predlog
preposition

preposition

[ˌprepəˈzɪʃən] N (Ling) → preposición f

preposition

[ˌprɛpəˈzɪʃən] npréposition fprepositional phrase [ˌprɛpəzɪʃənəlˈfreɪz] nlocution f prépositionnelle

preposition

preposition

[ˌprɛpəˈzɪʃn] npreposizione f

preposition

(prepəˈziʃən) noun
a word put before a noun or pronoun to show how it is related to another word. through the window; in the garden; written by me.
ˌprepoˈsitional adjective

preposition

n. gr. preposición.
References in classic literature ?
You also tried to release the objective case from its thraldom to the preposition, and it is written that servants should obey their masters.
Those terms, then, are called relative, the nature of which is explained by reference to something else, the preposition 'of' or some other preposition being used to indicate the relation.
It would seem long practice had rendered this manual accompaniment necessary; for it did not cease until the preposition which the poet had selected for the close of his verse had been duly delivered like a word of two syllables.
Every time I think I have got one of these four confusing "cases" where I am master of it, a seemingly insignificant preposition intrudes itself into my sentence, clothed with an awful and unsuspected power, and crumbles the ground from under me.
Coals is either BY the fire, or PER the scuttle.' She emphasised the prepositions as marking a subtle but immense difference.
As we have noted, both spread and cut take prepositions. The following sentences illustrate the usage of the word spread: 1) Before he knew what was happening, the bad news had spread across the entire nation.
While twen(e) and twix are aphetic forms of correspondingly bitwen(e) and bitwix(t)(en), atwen and atwix are formed from the preposition a and twen(e) or twix (cf.
Illustrations also may be used to show relationships of the subject and an object of the preposition such as a boy sitting in a desk; the preposition "in" relates "boy" with "desk." Other prepositions might show this relationship such as--on, in front of, behind, beside, and near.
Mr Gibb replied: "It's a preposition." But Ms Kearney revealed: "It is being used as a subordinating conjunction."
Il existe cependant un phenomene qui intrique beaucoup les professeurs de francais langue etrangere: dans un contexte analogue a (1), ou il s'agit d'une demande de destination, si l'objet de la reponse correspond a un nom faisant partie de la liste de noms de rue (avenue d'Italie, boulevard Raspail, place Vendome, rue de Rennes, etc.) (2), ce dernier n'aura besoin d'etre introduit par aucune preposition. De plus, l'ajout d'une preposition destabilise l'acceptabilite de la phrase:
Additionally, in example (3) do:Gen is used in a locational context as a proximity preposition, where instead of antonymy we find a synonymy relation with other proximity prepositions such as kraj, uz, pored, pokraj 'next to' (6).
Grady and Johnson (2002) explain that this is possible because such sentences can receive two interpretations depending on the meaning assigned to the preposition with.