During the prereform
era, the average representation of males was 95.
In the arts as in society, the accelerated changes after 1861 could take place--and can be understood--only on the basis of prereform
Only by studying the consumption behavior of stockholders after the reform can one determine whether the prereform
patterns continue to hold.
Reform92 Indicative variable taking the value of 1 for the years when the reform was in effect (years 92,93, 4: postreform period); otherwise 0 (90-91; prereform
A third issue to which the prereform
analyses did not give sufficient attention was the impact of policy reform on input markets and productivity.
Following the adoption of a flat tax, the economy takes about 100 years to return to its prereform
The conventional wisdom of the prereform
era was that an early, official declaration of entrance into the race for the Oval Office was a sign of weakness.
We can think of the Speaker's prereform
task as trying to maximize the net positive electoral externalities being generated by the various standing committees for majority party members seeking reelection.
For example, in Indonesia, the savings rate by 1986 had actually dropped to below prereform
This change represents a 56 percent relative increase in the proportion of new Medicare beneficiaries joining limited Medicaid from the prereform
period to the postreform period.
Recall that the prereform
environment was a system of fractured, short-lived coalition governments fraught with collective action problems.
Freeze, The Parish Clergy in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, Counter-Reform (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983); Freeze, "Subversive Piety: Religion and the Political Crisis in Late Imperial Russia," Journal of Modern History 68, 2 (1996): 308-50; and Freeze, "The Orthodox Church and Serfdom in Prereform
Russia," Slavic Review 48, 3 (1989): 361-87.