Here she returns to one of her guiding arguments in presenting this edition: that the subject matter and style of Ossianic poetry in Germany led not just to formal experiments in through-composition but also to the increased cultivation of styles that could be considered preromantic
. Scholars disagree concerning the extent to which the classical period styles of the Sturm und Drang and Empfindsamkeit, the more ongoing use of ombra techniques for terrifying scenes on the operatic stage, and the free fantasia style in keyboard playing constitute direct links to romantic aesthetics and techniques after 1800.
Bate (1963: 125) mentions here the preromantic
Edward Young, who in Conjectures on original composition (1759)--a true romantic manifesto that appeared a long time before that proposed by Wordsworth in his Preface to Lyrical Ballads--stated the following:
A turn away from melancholic and resigned exhalations in preromantic
literary landscapes, the Meditations thus set out to forge a musical language from their surroundings: "Le circonstanciel joue donc en deux directions opposees," Dominique Rabate remarks on Lamartine; "il est a la fois ce qu'il faut depasser mais concurremment cette singularite absolue que la langue ne devrait pas trahir" (71).
reformers had been writing about their plight since the eighteenth century, and one reform act actually began in 1788.
Vatsuro provides an in-depth description of many Russian preRomantic
and Romantic albums, as well as publishes many excerpts from albums in "Iz al'bomnoi liriki i literaturnoi polemiki 1790-1830kh godov," 61-78, and "Literaturnye al'bomy v sobranii Pushkinskogo Doma (1750-1840e gody)," 3-56, Ezhegodnik Rukopisnogo otdela Pushkinskogo doma na 1977 god (Lenmgrad: Nauka, 1979).
Walter Ong described the protest poetry of that era as "rhetorical and polemic, in this resembling that of the oral or residually oral culture of the preromantic
past" (Interfaces 228).
Fry's opening essay on "Classical standards in the period" presents a subtle yet compelling thesis about the interrelationships of the terms "Classical," "Romantic," "neo-classical," and "preromantic
," illustrated among other things by a survey of phases in the reception of Longinus and Aristotle.
The American poets were also instrumental in suggesting the possibility of renewal of poetic diction through a return to prenineteenth-century, preromantic
While Ginsberg and Mailer found heroism in the Emersonian view of the writer as (heroic, American) Representative Man, Sanders went back to a preromantic
view of the writer as someone who was there, observed, and recorded but who was not himself the hero.(1) Ironically, however, Sanders was more deeply involved in the antiwar movement than either Ginsberg or Mailer.
But the works he labels preromantic
were not sent, like John the Baptist, to prepare the way but by their very uncertainty about the future to dramatize the insufficiency of the present.
Blake could have found the invocational structure of his early lyrics most immediately in his preromantic
predecessors and notably in Collins and Thomson.