or antiscientific orientation is word-mindedness as distinguished from fact-mindedness, or, in the language of general semantics, intensional as distinguished from extensional orientation.
In a particularly striking use of Platonic imagery Strauss speaks about the creation of an artificial pit even below the "natural cave" of our prescientific
understanding, a cave beneath the cave, as it were.
General semantics has been described as a philosophy of life which accepts, as its metaphysics, modern science rather than any prescientific
scheme, and adjoins thereto an ethic which stands in as intimate a relation to science as may be.
He might have thought that if everything Theodorus taught him could not be the characteristic of science, Socrates must have wanted a prescientific
answer, that without which we would not know anything.
In general, our scientific language, in contrast to our prescientific
language, (i) is relative rather than absolute, (ii) is oriented to dimensions and operations rather than categories and abstract qualities, (iii) is quantitative and expressive of measurement, (iv) provides for the relatively elaborate expression of functional relationships and (v) affords the speaker considerable opportunity to exercise and express an awareness of the privacy and the limited validity of his own factual reports and particularly of his opinions and judgments.
Such demonstrations are to be distinguished from those having only nominal definitions as their middle terms (for example, 93a37-b2), because nominal definitions express only a prescientific
grasp of their objects and do not include their objects' causes.
By accepting the scientific method as the "best explanation of the world" we are not allowed to question further its justification, to engage in prescientific
Nearly all prescientific
views of the mind, going back to ancient Greek philosophers, assumed that knowledge resides in mental images that are based on what we perceive, he adds.
Hamilton derives the modern concept of the unconscious from Sade's celebration of the irrational body, and he identifies Marx's shift from prescientific
ideology critique to a grand narrative of economic determinism as an example of the "fate of philosophy" after Sade: "a series of attempts to .
Modern science, which excludes the possibility of miracles so little that it rather has as its actual foundation a concession to that possibility, secures itself subsequently against that possibility by claiming, on the basis of the consciousness of progress that belongs to it, therefore on the basis of a historical reflection, that belief in miracles is relative to the prescientific
stage of humanity.
Some specialists in cognitive science announce that traditional psychology will soon vanish as an independent discipline and would ultimately be dissolved in a full-blown neuropsychology, which would show, somewhat as chemistry supplanted alchemy, the illusory and prescientific
character of the old psychology.
Phenomenology proceeds with an awareness that consciousness operates on many different levels, ranging from explicit articulation of meanings to prescientific
awareness of events and entities which are taken-for-granted and in this respect, are often ignored.