In this chapter we find the -me- tense described as the 'already tense' to refer to the equivalent of 'present perfect tense
' in English.
"I have interviewed people with masters and PhD degrees who are native English speakers but not all of them can tell me the difference between past simple tense and present perfect tense
. But if you ask a teacher of English who is qualified, he/she will be able to answer it.
Finally, the present perfect tense
describes an action that occurred or a condition that existed at some indefinite time in the past.
While narrative refers to events that occurred in the past without the intervention of the speaker, using the aorist mode (= passe simple), the past tense, the past perfect tense and third-person pronouns (the present tense, the present perfect tense
(=passe composse) and first-person and second person pronouns being excluded), discourse implies a speaker and an auditor, the former having intention to persuade the latter, and uses all personal pronouns and verb tenses except the aorist mode.
(1.) Though APA guidelines direct authors to use past tense or present perfect tense
to describe earlier research, I believe that the use of present tense is more powerful when referencing ideas and theories that remain relevant to the issue at hand.
However, of all tenses it is the 'present perfect tense
' that matters.
Then, I will concern myself with how the narratives of these narrators often alternatively rely on two types of diegetic modes--an autonomous diegesis with the simple past tense (SP), and a linked diegesis with the present perfect tense
The distributional properties of used to revealed by Tagliamonte and Lawrence are precisely those of the present perfect tense
. For example, they show (334-35,342) that used to far more readily occurs in absolute position, and much more often in the opening sentence of a discourse (as in 25, the beginning of a Web page), than its rivals:
For smoothness of expression, pay attention to verb tense: past tense (e.g., "the student completed") or present perfect tense
(e.g., "counselors have shown") when writing the literature review, the description of the procedure of past events, and the results; present tense to discuss the results, conclusions, and recommendations.
Any physical system can be seen as the robust interface between the present progressive and the present perfect tense