Biologists at SNWR try to maintain an estimated deer density close to that of presettlement
estimates within the refuge boundary through managed hunts.
Both Bob and Don feel that with less than 5 percent of the old-growth presettlement
forests remaining, we have much to learn from what's left.
In the presettlement
period it provided water both for Native people and for the teeming buffalo herds.
While woodland restoration projects typically focus on improving degraded woodlands to more closely resemble presettlement
conditions, fewer studies have attempted to understand the process of transforming highly-altered, suburban lawn-dominated landscapes back into a healthy forest ecosystem.
Four biological factors (spawning, larval duration, vertical behaviors, and presettlement
mortality) are proposed to influence larval dispersal.
Importantly, federal actors provided no presettlement
Indianapolis was almost entirely forested in pre-European presettlement
times, but forests were reduced to 13% cover by the late 1900s (Barr et al.
The climate of Illinois likely permits fire as Wright suggested (1968), but the large population of people in presettlement
times probably increased the frequency of ignition as it did in Minnesota (Grimm 1984).
Increasing fuel loads, higher summer temperatures, prolonged late summer droughts and decreasing fuel moistures are combining to create circumstances in which wildfires that escape containment in YPMC forests can burn at much higher severity over larger areas in extreme weather conditions than was common under the presettlement
fire regime (Mallek et al.
The bobcat is native to Georgia and was likely found on Cumberland Island during presettlement
times; however, it does not now occur on any of the other Georgia barrier islands.
Because these dense stands are vulnerable to high-intensity wildfires, managers of ponderosa pine forests in the American Southwest have responded by attempting to restore presettlement
stand structure and return low-intensity fire to this fire-adapted landscape (Allen et al.
Analysis of lapillar otoliths revealed that larval duration, size at settlement, and presettlement
growth rates of the two sister species, the Arrow Goby and Tidewater Goby, were statistically different, though not dramatically different.