Presignal is a kind of traffic signal that is implemented in advance of main signalized intersections and provides priority for buses in choosing their approach behind the main intersections by giving red signal to private vehicles.
The bus presignal was defined by Peake  as the traffic signals implemented behind intersections for managing traffic flow and giving buses priority.
Queue relocation keeps private vehicles at presignal stop line due to saving the green time of the main intersection.
Kejun  has conducted a study about prioritizing buses at a single intersection using presignal and passive priority through introducing Bus Advance Area between stop lines of the presignalized and main intersections.
(ii) The intersection is controlled by a fixed-time traffic signal and equipped with presignal.
[d.sub.bus] is the distance between the presignal and the main intersection (m),
It should be considered that the distance of presignal ([d.sub.bus]) estimated in (3) has to be added to this distance.
x is the distance between the lead vehicle and the presignal,
The results showed that the presignal strategy could reduce the bus and the total passenger delays.
Menendez, "Bus priority at signalized intersections with single-lane approaches: A novel presignal strategy," Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol.