The above percentages however represent only one of the arithmetical markers used in the evaluation of the formal parameters of the prefixed preterite
participles and hence must be supplemented.
Given the difficulty of Christine's language, it would have been helpful to include a fuller discussion of unusual forms of the subjunctive, future, preterite
, and the feminine past participle.
Generally, here the consonant s is not considered as a trace of the 3P personal suffix *-sV but as a trace of an old preterite
(or of the perfect participle) suffix *-sV (Osnovy 1974 : 324).
Another example that illustrates the practical character of this work is that the anterior preterite
and the future subjunctive are not discussed, as they are no longer used in everyday Spanish.
Since the preceding line also has a passive (see above), I take utessi as Dt preterite
and not D perfect, as argued by Hallo/Moran 1979: 103 (cf.
Two types of verb forms were analyzed in the present study: preterite
and past participle forms.
The Udmurt "first past tense" on -i- (/-a-) is actually not preterite
in classical sense--in the same way as the "second past tense" in -em (/-am) is not perfect: the first is used to mark only the action which took place in the past (either finished or not) without any attention to its results, the second--to mark the existing result of the action without concerning if the action really took place and how, where and when.
But structuralism is right to imply that, for example, went as a suppletive preterite
of go must mean something different from what *goed would mean, if it existed.
Monophthongization of ai, au to e, o is of course a trivial phonetic development, and TB prautkar (B108 b6) may be a morphologically regular Class III preterite
/prewtk-ere/ (hence swara kalymim po prautkar nermi(t)em (p)oy[s]i[nta]sa "they completely filled the four directions with artificial Buddhas"?
The present author's earlier paper (Welna 2001) discussed the loss in Middle English of the continuations of eode, the preterite
of the infinitive gan 'go', which seems to have reflected an attempt at removing the suppletive past tense form from the Old English sequence inf.
Past participle forms act as the indirect preterite
in these dialects, for example (11), (12):
One of the interesting findings is that a binary semantic distinction between present and past time exists with the preterite
forms of the verb zijn and the present perfect form of the lexical verbs predominating.