The use of the simple preterite
m 't rather than a modal form ("it would have been .
Hogg & Fulk (2011: 299) comment briefly that preterite
-present verbs "for semantic reasons developed in such a way that their preterites
came to be used in present contexts and thus came to be regarded as present forms".
If Nicholas is simply reflecting on events, then the present tense interjections in the novel have no priority; they offer no point upon which to anchor the preterite
occurrence in preterite
clauses or in paragraph initial sentences or even the occasional vagueness of the words themselves.
The article will then focus on forced grammaticalization in Standard Estonian in the 20th and 21st centuries: synthetic preterite
, synthetic superlative, case forms of the infinitive, and complex verbs.
Osorio de Oliveira, like all young people who liked to dismiss triviality as the temptation of an idea, heard the two voices that invite the migration of the current: the voice of the preterite
, saturated with history and continuity, and the voice of the future, discontinuous and doubtful, expressing itself for the evocation, for the voyage, for times to come or for unfamiliar space.
the participle preterite
to the substantive verb, as I am loved.
The following abbreviations are used in the glosses: I-V genders ABL Ablative, BEN benefactive, CAUS causative, CNTR contrastive, COND conditional, CVB converb, DAT Dative, EP epenthetic, ERG Ergative, ESS Essive, F feminine, GEN1 first Genitive, HAB habitual, HPL human plural, INF infinitive, IMP imperative, IPFV imperfective, LAT Lative, LNK linker morpheme, M masculine, NEG negation, OBL oblique, POT potential, PRET preterite
, PRS present, PST past, PTCP participle, SG singular, QUOT quotative, UW unwitnessed, W witnessed.
22) We shall find "blood" derived, not quite so regularly, from "bleed," since "blood" is a kind of preterite
outcome of bleeding as it comes to visible self-knowledge: "living blood" precedes bleeding but our observationally confirmed knowledge of blood has been until recent times consequent upon bleeding events.
masculine, NEG = negative, nom = nominal element of a nominal verb, OBL = oblique, OPT = optative, Part = particle, pi = plural, PPTC = perfect participle, PRS = present, PRT = preterite
, Q = interrogative, sg = singular.
He offers us the histories of what Eric Wolf (1982) calls "people without history", the annals of the unstoried, the silences of the subaltern, the prose of the preterite
There was a ship": so begins his first utterance, cut short by his interlocutor; and that verb in the preterite
is more than just an instance of the epic tense, as we are later to learn from the terrifying event with which the action so spectacularly concludes.