In addition to student individualized education programs (IEPs) that indicated math a service area, two standardized subtests of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS; Form C, Level 12; University of Iowa, 2008) were administered as pretests
and helped to confirm the low achievement in math of students with disabilities in our study: Mathematics Computation (M = 14.
This lack of clarity may produce 'average' responses on pretests
which do not differ much from slightly-improved post-treatment tests.
Data collection was anonymous, with a request for students to list the last four digits of their social security number so we could match pretests
Ham and Enos returned safely from their space flights after an ocean 'splash-down' and brief helicopter ride to the deck of a recovery ship to make history as the American primates that provided the required behavior analysis pretests
for Project Mercury.
Table 2 indicates that the two groups were statistically equivalent on the pretests
showed that the treatment group began lower than the control group, and at a significantly lower level (p < 0.
After the pretests
were completed, the intervention group began receiving the classroom guidance lessons twice per week for the next 9 weeks.
The results of the one-way analysis of variance, presented in Table 5, show that there was a significant difference between the three groups (no exposure, average exposure, and more than average exposure) for both the pretests
and the posttests.
were scored using the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric (HCTSR).
The Stanford Achievement Test scores of spring 1998, when the students were in 4th grade were used as pretests
, and their Stanford Achievement Test scores from spring 2003 when the students were in 8th grade were used as posttests.
There were no statistically significant differences between the pretests
and the post-tests for Group 1 (IBS Intervention) regarding Role Ambiguity (p = 0,162) and Physical Environment (p = 0,121).
and posttests relating to Holocaust knowledge and attitudes were administered to both groups.