Women at advanced maternal age (Above 35 yrs.), primiparity
, multifetal pregnancy, previous history of preeclampsia, underlying chronic hypertension, diabetes, renal disease can pose a risk for the development of hypertension during pregnancy.
In conclusion, our data confirm the association between low schooling and primiparity
over the age of 30 and GBC.
and cephalic presentation of the fetus were significantly more common in the failure group than in the success group (55.9% [175/313] vs.
The cause is not known but many factors are thought to contribute like hormone receptor impairment, genetic impairment, enzyme defects, maternal factors like age and primiparity
or paternal factors like abnormalities of scrotum or testes, low spermatozoa motility and abnormal sperm morphology and even reduced levels of the placental hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may play a role3.
Multiple risk factors are known for the development of preeclampsia, including primiparity
, maternal age over 40 years, chronic hypertension or diabetes, multiple gestations, and a prior history of preeclampsia (9).
is recognized as a risk factor for perineal tears (10), since up to 73% of primiparous women develop moderate perineal tears, and 1% to 19% of vaginal births occur with sphincter laceration, thus involving third or fourth degree tears.
A portion of the literature has linked primiparity
with high levels of anxiety (Paul, Downs, Schaefer, Beiler, & Weisman, 2013).
as an intrapartum obstetric risk factor.
was another obstetrics determinant for full postnatal care service attendance.
(p = 0.001), those who received epidural analgesia (p = 0.004), those who had episiotomy (p < 0.001), and those who had instrumental delivery (p = 0.004) were significantly associated with higher rate of PPUR.
Specifically for nulliparous women, a multicenter study conducted among more than 8,000 women with low-risk pregnancy demonstrated a 37% detection rate for preeclampsia using a predictor model composed exclusively of clinical factors ; obesity and primiparity
appeared as the main demographic predictor elements of early preeclampsia.
Multivariable linear regression model utilized the following additional independent variables: PTB status, maternal age, preconception BMI, gestational age, primiparity
, smoking status, educational status, infection, genotypes, and infant gender.