where P(C < D)|PGA is the probability of damage
or of collapse; C is the structural capacity; D is the seismic demand for a given seismic intensity; PGA denotes the peak ground acceleration; [PHI] denotes the cumulative normal distribution function; and [sigma] and [xi] represent the mean and standard deviation of the seismic intensity that would lead to a damage state, respectively.
As is evident in Figures 15 to 18, the HAZUS method yields a reduced probability of damage
. The difference between the curves is higher compared to the 5-story steel frame.
From the fifth and up to the eighth day, both subjects have the same probability of damage
"The risk of seismic activity associated with hydraulic fracking operations is small and the probability of damage
is extremely small - we suggest fracking can continue under our recommendations," one of the report's authors, the British Geological Society's Brian Baptie, said at a briefing.
Depending on climatic and traffic conditions there are some boundary limits in which the pavement works better (with smaller probability of damage
When too many cables are routed in a single pathway, tracing an individual cable from one point to another can become difficult, and the probability of damage
to the cables increases, leading to decreased network reliability and increased time to reconfigure the network.
Planning tools designed to develop recommendations for conservation efforts at field, farm, and watershed scales can and should be developed that are capable of predicting and reporting the probability of damage
from a particular storm event as well as from annual precipitation.
The curves indicate higher probability of damage
compared to data over 300m.
It is commonly assumed that a high value increases the probability of damage
. However, this is often not so, since, for a given current, the energy dissipated per unit volume in the sample is less for a high voltage because, although the total energy deposited in the sample increases with voltage, the volume penetrated increases much more rapidly.
In the case of multi-lead connectors, hundreds of joints may have to be reheated, significantly increasing the probability of damage
angered by the probability of damage
to wildlife and the environment, have vowed to fight the action.
Tows with a fourth footrope, whose design allowed crabs to pass with minimal probability of damage
, were used to account for injuries due to factors other than passing under the footrope.