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In another study where researchers [21] gave antioxidant substances (naringin and probucol) to rabbits with diet, they observed that these substances did not affect plasma MDA and the level of vitamin A while increasing the level of vitamin E by decreasing its use.
(27) Roy K et al also reported that ceftriaxone induced lipid peroxidation in goat whole blood and it was inhibited by glutathione and probucol. (28)
Probucol preserves pancreatic beta-cell function through reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.
When health advice alone was not effective, men in the intervention group also received drugs recommended at that time to lower blood pressure (beta-blockers and diuretics) and lipids (clofibrate and probucol).
Combinations with bile-acid sequestrates, niacin, fibrates, and probucol have been used successfully.
Several pharmacological measures have been evaluated in the past including ascorbic acid, fenoldopam, prostaglandins, probucol, statins, theophylline, tocopherol, and trimetazidine (Table 2).
The stimulation of the efflux in cAMP-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages is blocked by sterol 27-hydroxylase inhibitor GW273297x, LXR inhibitor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and ABCA1 inhibitor probucol [49].
The polymer-free matrix of these stents consists of sirolimus and its matrix builder probucol. Their safety and efficacy have been proven similar to the one reported with zotarolimus stents in ISAR-TEST 5 trial [8].
Probucol is a phenolic lipid-lowering compound with antioxidant properties that has been used in clinical treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases [41].
Xia, "Impact of adding folic acid, vitamin B(12) and probucol to standard antihypertensive medication on plasma homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels of essential hypertension patients," Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi, vol.
Probucol protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.Indian J Pharmacol.
The exclusion criteria were: 1) secondary hypertension; 2) taking lipid-regulating agents such as statins, niacin, probucol, or fibrates; 3) coronary heart disease; 4) arrhythmia; 5) heart failure; 6) diabetes mellitus; 7) peripheral artery disease; 8) primary hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism; 9) known intolerance or hypersensitivity to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; 10) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels > 2-fold the upper normal limit; 11) serum creatinine >178 [micro]mol/L or creatine kinase (CK) > 3-fold the upper normal limit; 12) Behcet disease, or 13) psoriasis.