There have been promising reports of the use of recombinant factor VIIa (rVIIa) for treating hemorrhage in patients with AFE in recent years, but a recent review of case reports of AFE from 2003 to 2009 suggests that the procoagulant
may actually worsen outcomes (Anesthesiology 2011;115:1201-8).
Use of procoagulant
reversal agents such as prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC), or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) may be considered, but has not been evaluated in clinical trials.
Third, the pathogenesis of VICC is due to the action of a snake procoagulant
toxin at one point in the coagulation pathway, not the tissue factor/factor VIIa pathway thought to be important in DIC.
In one noteworthy study, when C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in masters (40+) runners post-marathon, they were found to be sufficiently elevated to put these marathoners in a procoagulant
state even hours after the race.
Antibodies to the Factor VIII light chain that neutralize FVIII procoagulant
activity are present in plasma of nonresponder patients with severe hemophilia A and in normal polyclonal human IgG.
An active infectious process--infections may lead to activation of endothelial cells and a procoagulant
928) hypothesized that Hg-induced procoagulant
activation of erythrocytes may be associated with Hg-related CVD.
With liver disease (or vitamin K deficiency/antagonism), factor VII is usually the first factor to decrease as it has the shortest half life of all procoagulant
factors produced in the liver.
They engineered thrombin to promote activity toward protein C - the anticoagulant target protein - and minimize activity toward fibrinogen and PAR1 - the procoagulant
and prothrombotic targets.
Markers of vasculitis (anticardiolipin antibodies, rheumatoid factor, ANA, anti-dsDNA) and procoagulant
factors (protein C, protein S, antithrombin III) were all found negative.