Cryptoglandular anal fistulas arise from an inflammation of the proctodeal
glands, which in humans are only rudimentary and are situated in the intersphincteric space.
20: filamento branquial anterior ramificado en 5 filamentos secundarios cortos y posterior simple, ojos pequenos, melanoforos mas abundantes que en el estadio anterior y dispersos en el dorso del cuerpo, tubo proctodeal
Other dietary sources of protein include dead protozoans obtained from proctodeal
feeding, cannibalism and necrophagy, and coprophagy (Noirot and Noirot-Timothee 1969; Collins 1983; Hunt and Nalepa 1994; Nation 2002; Arquette et al.
Calls of males used in this study were recorded when the individuals were 8 week of age and they were completely sexually mature, as testified by the development of the proctodeal
gland with foam production.
On physical examination, the bird was slightly overweight, the caudal abdomen just above the vent opening felt firm, and the proctodeal
mucosa was slightly erythematous.