Some scholars argue that the Nazi government did not persecute lesbians to the same degree because women in general were not seen as sexual beings or as threatening to the regime's policy of pronatalism
, which encouraged reproduction.
Hoffmann, "Mothers in the Motherland: Stalinist Pronatalism
in Its Pan-European Context," Journal of Social History 34, 1 (2000), 35-54.
The Rise of the Abortion Empire and Pronatalism
in Socialist and Postsocialist Russia," explores the USSR's seemingly contradictory reproductive politics.
The overwhelming negative influence of desired family size on the odds of using modern methods of contraception may be revealing the strong pronatalism
which is still dominant in most of urban sub-Saharan Africa.
particular, how did the mondine negotiate pronatalism
(the bearing of
This included debates over women's suffrage, immigration policy, how French women and men should act in the face of Stalinism and Nazism, and the regressive impact of pronatalism
on the promising ideas of the left.
Gimenez, Feminism, Pronatalism
, and Motherhood, in Mothering: Essays in Feminist Theory 287-90, 297 (Joyce Trebilcot ed.
At times, this jockeying meant that eugenicists shared or even borrowed perspectives from Catholics, namely support for pronatalism
and positive eugenics.
The period between 1911 and 1918 encompasses a number of events, movements and political attitudes that often worked at cross purposes and which all had a stake in defining the role of the mothers of Italy: the Italian campaign in Libya, the emergence of an organized antimilitarist movement that included socialists and anarchists, the continuing "battle of the sexes" and the women's movement, Nationalism and pronatalism
, and Italy's intervention in World War I.
For a study of how declining fertility rates, race, and nativism have shaped pronatalist politics in another national context, see Jessica Autumn Brown and Myra Marx Ferree, Close Your Eyes and Think of England: Pronatalism
in the British Print Media, 19 Gender & Society 5, 5-24 (2005).
In analyzing sterilization as a (non)reproductive technology that has the potential to challenge pronatalism
and the presumed centrality of maternity and maternal capacity to womanhood, this article builds on both the literature that examines the complex cultural forces that incentivize reproduction and the burgeoning literature on reproduction and technology.
Conceiving the Future: Pronatalism
, Reproduction, and the Family in the United States, 1890-1938.