Exposure to formaldehyde at therapeutic levels decreases peripheral blood lymphocytes and hematopoietic progenitors in the pronephros
of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.
, mesonephros, and metanephros represent the three primitive kidneys, present during the various developmental stages of the human embryo.
The embryonic kidney develops through three stages: the pronephros
, the mesonephros, which both will regress throughout development, and the metanephros, which forms the final kidney.[sup]
Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Cadmium in Pronephros
of Colossoma macropomum
In vitro effect of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on chemiluminescent response of pronephros
cells isolated from tilapia, Oreochromis aureus.
miR-30a-5p is strongly produced in the pronephros
and increases as kidney development progresses (30, 31).
However, the anterior kidney or pronephros
, analog evolutionary of the bone marrow, possesses important hematopoietic functions (precursor hematopoietic cells appear after 96 h as postfertilized (hpf) in mesonephric tubules) and also presents similar functions to those of the adrenal gland of mammals, which is key in connections among the neuroimmune-endocrine systems [6-8].
(22-25) Deletion of both PAX8 and PAX2 genes prevents generation of the mesonephric (wolffian) duct and subsequent formation of all three embryonic kidneys (pronephros
, mesonephros, and metanephros).
Homozygous Wtl~l~ mice do not undergo differentiation from pronephros
to metanephros and die in utero (Kreidberg et al.