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Related to pronephros: mesonephros, metanephros


 (prō-nĕf′rəs, -rŏs′)
n. pl. pro·neph·roi (-roi) or pro·neph·ra (-rə)
A kidneylike organ, being either part of the most anterior pair of three pairs of organs in a vertebrate embryo, disappearing early in the embryonic development of most vertebrates.

[pro- + Greek nephros, kidney.]

pro·neph′ric (-rĭk) adj.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


n, pl -roi (-rɔɪ) or -ra (-rə)
(Zoology) the first-formed anterior part of the embryonic kidney in vertebrates, which remains functional in the larvae of the lower vertebrates. See also mesonephros, metanephros
[C19: New Latin, from pro-2 + Greek nephros kidney]
proˈnephric adj
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(proʊˈnɛf rɒs, -rəs)

n., pl. -roi (-roi), -ra (-rə)
an excretory organ of vertebrate embryos, which in some primitive fishes develops into a functional kidney.
[1875–80; < New Latin < Greek pro- pro-2 + nephrós kidney]
pro•neph′ric, adj.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Exposure to formaldehyde at therapeutic levels decreases peripheral blood lymphocytes and hematopoietic progenitors in the pronephros of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.
Pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros represent the three primitive kidneys, present during the various developmental stages of the human embryo.
The embryonic kidney develops through three stages: the pronephros, the mesonephros, which both will regress throughout development, and the metanephros, which forms the final kidney.[sup][5]
Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Cadmium in Pronephros of Colossoma macropomum
miR-30a-5p is strongly produced in the pronephros and increases as kidney development progresses (30, 31).
However, the anterior kidney or pronephros, analog evolutionary of the bone marrow, possesses important hematopoietic functions (precursor hematopoietic cells appear after 96 h as postfertilized (hpf) in mesonephric tubules) and also presents similar functions to those of the adrenal gland of mammals, which is key in connections among the neuroimmune-endocrine systems [6-8].
(22-25) Deletion of both PAX8 and PAX2 genes prevents generation of the mesonephric (wolffian) duct and subsequent formation of all three embryonic kidneys (pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros).
Homozygous Wtl~l~ mice do not undergo differentiation from pronephros to metanephros and die in utero (Kreidberg et al.