Apart from the technical terms and descriptions used above, there is the subdivision into oxytone, paroxytone and proparoxytone
structures, the value that PRI assigns to <a>, and the boxes marked with NA for domains where a particular rule is "not applicable." A word like aluminum, for example, which would fit into the PR6 type will be interpreted according to PR3.2 because PR6 is not applicable to the <u> domain (Bozman 1988, 48).
Datylic lowering shows that the mid vowels in proparoxytone
position are always produced as mid-low ([eske'leto] 'esqueleto' / 'skeleton' > [eske'ls.tiko] 'esqueletico' / 'skeletal').
Depending on stress location, words are classified as: (a) oxitone (stress on the last syllable), (b) paroxitone (stress on the penultimate syllable) and, (c) proparoxytone
(stress on the antepenultimate syllable) (19-21).
Generally speaking, this consists of an indeterminate number of lines, each consisting of eight syllables divided 4p + 4p ('p' indicates a paroxytone ending, 'pp' a proparoxytone
) and concluded by a single seven-syllable line divided 3p + 4pp.
Diego focuses precisely on the Romantic poet's rhythms in "Las golondrinas de Becquer," indicating how the words stressed on the antepenultimate (proparoxytones
; palabras esdrujulas) and ultimate (palabras agudas) syllables of the Rima LIII mirror the nervous state induced by disillusionment in love--a theme of El romancero de la novia (190).
The first verse also presents syntactic packaging, emphasized by the reiteration of the long 4-syllable foot imposed by the three successive proparoxytones
("lampadas electricas da fabrica"); the rhythm functions as super-anapest, with an intrinsic "weak-weakweak-strong" crescendo that adds to the overall impact of the opening).
(5.) Here and in what follows, I use a simplified IPA transcription, with s c g instead of [??] t[??] dz, CC instead of C:, and V instead of V (stress is marked only on oxytones and proparoxytones
Among the sources are assimilation, compensatory lengthening, stress, sonority, the optimization of syllable contacts, and spontaneous gemination in proparoxytones
. Noteworthy in this history, however, is the absence of gemination in the northern dialects.
In all but two of these cases of exceptional dialefe the first word is paroxytonic (a parola piana), which supports Beccaria's assertion that dialefe in Dante is prohibited after proparoxytones
(parole sdrucciole); the two exceptions, if we wish to keep the accented sixth syllable, are 88 and 89.
In order to find out the phonological units that better account for the rising F0 trajectories in the two languages, I recorded one English and one Spanish native speaker producing 45 declarative sentences which contained words with different stress distributions (oxytones, paroxytones and proparoxytones
) in prenuclear position.
with a closed penultimate syllable seem to be practically nonexistent, (9) which might suggest at first sight that quantity sensitivity is still active, so no matter whether the system is rule-based or not, made-up words with these syllabic structures are not expected to be stressed on the antepenult.
The status of L is investigated in words with different stress distributions (oxytones, paroxytones, and proparoxytones
) in subject and verb focal positions.