([section]) Short and long acting opioid drugs in this study included buprenorphine, butorphanol, codeine, dihydrocodeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, meperidine, methadone, morphine, naltrexone, nalbuphine, naloxone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, propoxyphene
, tapentadol, and tramadol.
Opioid analgesics commonly used to combat pain include codeine (Dolacet[R], Hydrocet[R], Lorcet[R], Lortab[R]); morphine (Avinza[R], Oramorph[R]); oxycodone (Vicodin[R], Oxycontin[R], Roxicodone[R], Percocet[R], Roxicet[R]); propoxyphene
(Darvon[R], Darvocet[R]) and tramadol (Ultram[R], Ultracet[R]).
Opioids Benzodiazepines and Stimulants benzodiazepine-like medications Morphine Diazepam Amphetamine Codeine 7-Amino-clonazepam Methamphetamine Acetylmorphine 7-Amino-nitrazepam Cocaine Buprenorphine 7-Amino-flunitrazepam Benzoylecgonine Methadone Alprazolam MDMA Oxycodone Zopiclone Tramadol Zolpidem Ethylmorphine Zaleplon Ketobemidone Fentanyl Propoxyphene
Opioids Sedatives Morphine Alimemazine Codeine Hydroxyzine Acetylmorphine Promethazine Buprenorphine Propiomazine Methadone Oxycodone Tramadol Ethylmorphine Ketobemidone Fentanyl Propoxyphene
Table 2: Positive hair specimens in opioid positive and opioid negative patients, N = 59 (excluding nonsynthetic cannabinoids).
She was instructed to discontinue carbamazepine and was given a dose of diphenhydramine, ondansetron, and morphine and discharged on propoxyphene
The company's RDS InCup products include barbiturates, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, cocaine, MDMA, methamphetamines, methadone, opiates, oxycodone, phencyclidine, propoxyphene
, marijuana and tricyclic antidepressants, among others.
Indeed, in 2010 this was the reason for the US FDA's request for withdrawal of propoxyphene
, an opioid analgesic marketed by Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, and sibutramine, an appetite depressant marketed by Abbott Laboratories.
The prescribed drugs included codeine, dihydrocodeine, meperidine, morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxymorphone, propoxyphene
, methadone, tramadol, and levorphanol, said Dr.
Opioid type included codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and propoxyphene
. Notably, no participants were prescribed methadone as part of an opioid substitution program.
Besides nicotine (89.6%), the most common substances used were cannabis (48.8%), codeine (48%), propoxyphene
(37.6%), alcohol (36.8%) and benzodiazepines (36%) [Table 3].
[14,16] Doctors that claimed to rely on scientific data rather than commercial source for information on drug efficacy have been prescribing propoxyphene
and centrally acting vasodilators despite the availability of clinical literature indicating lack of efficacy, and perhaps token gifts and drug samples given to them are the cause.
Workforce 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.7% 3.9% Positivity rates by testing category--urine drug tests Drug Category 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 6-AM 0.011% (1) 0.013% 0.017% 0.020% 0.025% Amphetamines 0.58% 0.69% 0.77% 0.85% 0.9% Barbiturates 0.25% 0.26% 0.25% 0.23% 0.22% Benzodiazepines 0.79% 0.78% 0.73% 0.74% 0.71% Cocaine 0.25% 0.28% 0.23% 0.23% 0.24% Marijuana 1.7% 1.6% 1.6% 1.7% 1.9% MDMA 0.007% 0.003% 0.002% 0.003% 0.004% Methadone 0.22% 0.20% 0.19% 0.18% 0.18% Opiates 0.34% 0.36% 0.37% 0.39% 0.39% Oxycodones 1.0% 1.1% 0.96% 0.88% 0.8% PCP 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% Propoxyphene
0.38% 0.06% 0.02% 0.01% 0.01% (1) October-December 2010 Positivity rates by drug category with urine drug tests, for the combined U.S.