The spotted sand bass has been described as a protogynous
hermaphrodite (Hastings, 1989; Oda et al., 1993; Lluch-Cota, 1996).
The flexibility in the sexual expression of a species and the evolution of sequential hermaphroditism in previously gonochoristic populations can be simulated by setting the initial frequencies of each sex and the predominance of lifetime males and females, with which can occurs four flexibility strategies (Warner, 1975): (1) change from a male to female (protandry); (2) change from female to male (protogyny); (3) change from female to hermaphrodite (protogynous
hermaphroditism); (4) change from male to hermaphrodite (protandrous hermaphroditism).
Size at sex change in protogynous
labroids, prey body size distributions, and apex predator densities at NW Hawaiian atolls.
Three strategies are observed: protogynous
(female-to-male, common amongst coral reef fishes such as groupers, parrotfishes and wrasses); protandrous (male-to-female, as in anemone fishes); and sequentially bidirectional sex change (sex change in either direction, common in gobies).
This fish is a protogynous
hermaphrodite, and individuals are first female and become male in the third or fourth year of life.
danaeifolium (90 days), they may be either protandrous or protogynous
. The neck of the mature archegonia is short and curved away from the notched end of the gametophyte, and it is composed of four rows each with four cells long, and slightly curved towards the apical region (notch) of the gametophyte (Fig.
The second category is denominated "Type II" or "protogynous
", because the pistil structure is the one that matures first (stigma of the female flowers become receptive before the catkins begin to shed pollen).
(The groupers are mostly monandric protogynous
hermaphrodites, that is, they mature only as female and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity)
Indeed, because of the protogynous
nature of the crop the stigmata of a plant are receptive before the shedding of pollen and the flowering starts from the upper to the lower part.
T indicas bisexual flowers exhibit protogynous
dichogamy, with flowering occurring in dry season where there is both self- and cross-pollination but the latter is much more effective.
[25.] Wu Y, He Z, Zhang L, Jiang H, Zhang W (2012) Ontogeny of immunoreactive Lh and Fsh cells in relation to early ovarian differentiation and development in protogynous
hermaphroditic rice field eel Monopterus albus.
Therefore, both species are protogynous
. Male phase of coenanthia lasted an average of 38 days in Dorstenia arifolia (12 days in unisexual male coenanthia) and 19 days in D.