The ring-opening polymerization of epoxynorbornene linseed oils proceeds efficiently in the presence of a photogenerated protonic
acid to form a polyether.
The fully hydrated acid forms of the membranes had protonic
conductivities of 0.11 and 0.17 S/cm for the 40 and 60 mole% disulfonated copolymers in liquid water at 30[degrees]C, (13) which is comparable to or higher than Nation[R] 1100.
The combined results from these neutron techniques allows for a more thorough understanding of the factors responsible for the favorable protonic
conductivity properties associated with this material.
Sulfuric acid undergoes self-ionization or autoprotolysis in the same manner as water and many other protonic
solvents : [Mathematical Expression Omitted] Just as the acidity of an aqueous solution is increased by increasing the concentration of [H.sub.3.O.sup.+], the acidity of [H.sub.2.SO.sub.4] can be further increased by a solute HA that behaves as an acid, thereby increasing the concentration of the [H.sub.3.SO.sup.+.sub.4] ion: [Mathematical Expression Omitted] There are only a few acids that are strong enough to ionize in this way.
N[H.sub.3] TPD curves associated with the acidity of protonic
zeolites, such as HY5.1, HY5.2, and HY30 herein studied, usually, demonstrate peaks in two temperature ranges (see Figure 7).
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Because of these properties, there is a growing interest in testing ILs as a protonic
charge carrier in proton exchange membranes allowing PEMFC to operate at temperatures above 80[degrees]C and low humidity.
On doping emeraldine base (EB) with nonoxidising protonic
acids such as HCl, [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4], or organic acids (p-toluene sulfonic acid), it is converted into emeraldine salt (ES) form which is electrically conducting [23, 24].
MacDiarmid, "'Polyaniline': protonic
acid doping of the emeraldine form to the metallic regime," Synthetic Metals, vol.
Subsequent to the investigation of other highly conductive organic materials, MacDiarmid demonstrated the conductive states of PANI which arose upon protonic
doping of the emeraldine form of PANI .