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A cell of a plant, fungus, bacterium, or archaeon from which the cell wall has been removed, leaving the protoplasm and plasma membrane.

[French protoplaste, from Old French, the first man, from Late Latin prōtoplastus, from Greek prōtoplastos : prōto-, proto- + plastos, formed, molded; see -plast.]

pro′to·plas′tic adj.


(Biology) a unit consisting of the living parts of a cell, including the protoplasm and cell membrane but not the vacuoles or (in plants) the cell wall
[C16: from Late Latin prōtoplastus the first-formed, from Greek prōtoplastos, from proto- + plassein to shape]
ˌprotoˈplastic adj


(ˈproʊ təˌplæst)

a. the contents of a cell within the cell membrane, considered as a fundamental entity.
b. the primordial living unit or cell.
2. a person or thing that is formed first; original; prototype.
3. the hypothetical first individual or one of the supposed first pair of a species or the like.
[1525–35; < Late Latin prōtoplastus the first man, n. use of Greek prōtóplastos formed first]
pro`to•plas′tic, adj.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.protoplast - a biological unit consisting of a nucleus and the body of cytoplasm with which it interacts
cell - (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals
body part - any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity


A first form from which varieties arise or imitations are made:


n (Bot) → Protoplast m
References in periodicals archive ?
In the recent report group of scientists co-transformed both Cas9 protein and in-vitro SgRNA into plant protoplast and a single mutated protoplast could turn into a fertile homozygous mutant plant via protoplast regeneration without any foreign DNA integration 69.
In addition, comparing with other transient expression systems like protoplast transformation (Sheen 2001), gene gun mediated transformation (Schweizer et al., 1999) and microinjection (Bilang et al., 1993), agroinfiltration has the advantages that it is simple, cheap and can be exploited for intact plant leaves, hence a relative large leaf area can be transformed (Kapila et al., 1997).
increments; Capacitance for 10 500V, 25 3,275 oF; 500 2,500V, 25 and 50 oF; LCD; supply with 1 and 2 mm gap disposable cuvettes (50 each), Chamber for plant protoplast fusion (one), Electrodes (2mm gap) covering ~90mm petri-dish for plant applications (one), micro-slides for cell/protoplast fusion 1mm gap (10 numbers); with suitable automatic voltage stabilizer.
Genome shuffling is a useful method for rapid breeding of improved microorganisms and involves the generation of mutant strains that have an improved phenotype, followed by multiple rounds of protoplast fusion to allow recombination between genomes [7,8].
Four compounds that were obtained through similarity search (Figure 3) were screened for their protoplast and antifungal properties.
The discovery of role of phytohormones such as Kinetin by Skoog [10], and demonstration of totipotency of plant cells by Steward, et al., [12], auxins by Thimman & Leopold, [18], clonal propagation of orchids by Morel [55], embryo culture by Maheshwari, [62] haploids by Guha & Maheshwari, [73] protoplast isolation and fusion by Cocking [98] and Takebe, et al, [15] are the other landmarks in the development of this field.
Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from protoplast culture of Muscari neglectum Guss.
[14] Tannins in low concentrations is capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria, while at high concentrations, tannins works as antimicrobial with how bacteria protoplast coagulation, so a stable bond formed with protein of bacteria.
Herbicide resistant indica rice plants from IRRI breeding lines after PEG- mediated transformation of protoplast. Plant Molecular Biology, 1992; 20, 619-692.
Tenders are invited for Electroporator for protoplast fusion
The author also studied the Cd distribution in mesophyll protoplast of leaf cells in both the hyperaccumulating plants, namely, T.