Identification and characterization of a protostome
homologue of peropsin from a jumping spider.
ABSTRACT Molluscs belong to one of the two protostome
superphyla, the Lophotrochozoa.
Peel, "Articulated Halkieriids from the Lower Cambrian of North Greenland and Their Role in Early Protostome
Evolution," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 347 (1995): 305-58.
Evidence from 18S ribosomal DNA that the Lophophorates are protostome
It is conceivable that a twisting of the body organization would have turned a protostome
into a deuterostome.
Eyes appear in the bilaterally symmetrical animals in the protostome
invertebrate branch, including the Phylum Arthropoda (jointed leg animals), Annelida (segmented worms), and Mollusca (bivalves, snails, and cephalopods).
Polychaete plylogeny: A problem in Protostome
For example, the relationships among the protostome
phyla or the classes of arthropods continue to be points of contention.
2008), use of these terms is problematic as both protostome
and vertebrate genomes contain both types, a fact recognized by Hibino et al.
The seemingly sporadic distribution of the different SNBP types is the result of this transition having occurred repeatedly in the course of evolution (Kasinsky, 1995) within different groups of both the deuterostome and protostome
branches (Ausio, 1999; Eirin-Lopez et al.
Moreover, analyses of marine invertebrates, particularly in understudied protostome
lineages, help expand perspectives in gamete biology and add to our current knowledge of these topics, which is predominantly based on studies of mammals.
Although embryonic development in many annelid taxa conforms well to long-established protostome
stereotypes, many species display modifications of the spiralian cleavage pattern, diverse modes of gastrulation, and of course varied larval forms.