contacts an edge to edge upper and lower anterior teeth contact was observed with the aid of articulating paper.18
Maxilla was found to be more protrusive
in males than females whereas the sagittal position of the mandible was similar between the genders in this study.
pycnostachyum were clearly protrusive
. The epidermis includes a single flattened row, rectangular, round or oval-shaped cells.
Earlier cephalometric researches performed on Saudi population with reasonable contour and standard occlusion revealed that Saudis have extra protrusive
dental and facial distinctiveness in contrast to North Americans and British Caucasian persons.14,15 Al-Jasser16 performed two researches which compares Saudi students and North Americans Caucasians in accordance with Steiner's and Down's analyses.
Similarly, in the above cases, the protrusive
facial profile drastically improved.
DS is accompanied by physical functional problems that are highly specific for the orofacial region.1 These functional problems include speech, swallowing and chewing difficulties, and there also appears to be an increase in facial, skeletal and orthodontic problems.1,2 Among the soft tissue characteristics of oral cavity, there exists relative macroglossia since there is a protrusive
tongue with deep fissures and a smaller oral cavity due to the deformity in the midface.1,3,4
As reported in the literature, the high incidence of such injuries may be due to the protrusive
structure of the maxilla (4,11,13,21,23).
Occlusion was controlled in centric, lateral, and protrusive
movements, and premature contacts were removed (Figure 3).
This is backed by a study made on asymptomatic persons, on whom electromyography was carried out; the results arrived are that to carry out an opening for speech the average amplitude of 11mm, with protrusive
components of 12mm and retrusive ones of 5,7mm, and that deviations and laterality oscillate by 1mm on the average.
After luting, the occlusion was verified to avoid both interferences during excursive (protrusive
and lateral) jaw movements and prematurities at maximum intercuspation.
Among these, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has been widely researched [9,10] and has been confirmed to regulate microtubules and actin filaments; the latter of which can produce pushing (protrusive
) forces or pulling (contractile) forces that are particularly important for whole-cell migration [11-13].
The clinical signs were assessed using the RDC/TMD criteria, including pain on palpation, mandibular range of motion (mm), associated pain (jaw opening pattern, unassisted opening, maximum assisted opening, mandibular excursive, and protrusive
movements), sounds coming from the TMJ, and tenderness induced by muscle and joint palpation.