Adult animals in early stages of new carapace formation (C2 to early C4) are more likely to produce pseudomembranes
in response to infections, and if successful in limiting further erosion, will be shored up by epithelial deposition of more normal carapace layers on the inner surface of the pseudomembrane
(Smolowitz et al.
While in some epidemics infection is mild and rarely fatal, in others it is characterized by wide extension of the pseudomembrane
and tends to attack the larynx.
Degranulated hemocytes at the surface of the wound formed a pseudomembrane
over the exposed connective tissues.
In the second week, this patch developed into a pseudomembrane
covering the ulcer (Figure 3).
Grading of shell disease severity (in a total of 76 animals) included 3 levels by visual observation: mild (grades I and II) epicuticular erosion and erosion into the exocuticle, medium (grades III and IV) erosion into the striated endocuticle, the thin-lamellar endocuticle and erosion into the pseudomembrane
and severe (grade V) total erosion of the cuticle and ulceration of the underlying cuticular epithelium, respectively, according to Smolowitz et al.
pseudodiphtheriticum exudative upper respiratory tract infections with a pseudomembrane
were first diagnosed as respiratory diphtheria.
All patients had the same spectrum of lesions: patchy white plaques, confluent pseudomembrane
, and friable mucosa.
From the Greek diphthera (leather), diphtheria is named for the tough pseudomembrane
that forms in the patient's throat.
8,54) Less common signs include pin-point (petechial) sub-conjunctival haemorrhages, and, in severe cases, pseudomembrane
formation, representing coagulated exudate that is loosely adhered to the palpebral conjunctiva.
Various clinical pictures including mild-moderate conjunctival erythema, little, mucoid or abundant, purulent discharge, ocular edema, conjunctival edema or pseudomembrane
formation may be observed (7,8,18).
Clostridium difficile infection can often be identified endoscopically and histologically by its characteristic pseudomembrane
formation (Figure 4).
In extreme cases, an extensive pseudomembrane
developed adjacent to the membranous layer of the cuticle.