Ramana, "Floral biology, psychophily
, anemochory and zoochory in Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and the Robins (Asteraceae)," Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol.
Unfortunately, not much is known about the entomophylous properties of plant species from Mexico, and even less about their insect pollinators, especially butterflies (psychophily
) and moths (phalaenophily).
The pollination syndromes encountered in the plant community included: melittophily (65.2%), phalenophily (13%, including here flowers pollinated by sphingids and nocturnal moths), chiropterophily (11%), ornithophily (6.5%), as well as cantharophily and psychophily (4.3% each).
The syndromes of psychophily and cantharophily were represented by only a single species each, and these were observed flowering only during the rainy season.
tinctoria, the floral characteristics such as white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated hexose-rich nectar accounting for 15-18% sugar concentration characterized psychophily.
The psychophily is advantageous for the plant because butterflies do not collect pollen for themselves but only carry pollen on their proboscis and affect pollination while collecting nectar.