(eccentricity and unusual cognitions).
FFS was postulated as sensitivity to unconditioned negative/ aversive stimuli (i.e., naturally painful stimuli), and was related to the emotions of anger, anxiety, general negative effect and grief, the motivation to escape/flee (if the environment allowed) or fight (if flight was not possible), and the personality dimension of psychoticism
.5 Generally, flight or freezing responses was elicited in threating condition (quite distant or distal) but in aversive condition, fight was evoked when it was immediate or more proximal.
Results showed that neuroticism and psychoticism
were remarkably higher in cases than control.
Medical students fall in the vulnerable group due to their age, need for internet use and stressful medical training.7,8 A comorbid psychopathology systematic review in excessive internet use revealed that 75% of the examined studies reported a significant correlation between pathological internet use and depression.9 A previous study showed the significant relationship between IA and psychiatric symptoms such as depression, obsessive compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism
. With longer use, more psychiatric symptoms occur.10 This study was aimed to assess the correlation between internet addiction and depression, anxiety, and stress among the medical students of Azad Kashmir.
This 90-item questionnaire featuring a five-point Likert scale format was used to evaluate nine symptom dimensions (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism
) and three global indices (distress, severity and positive symptoms).
The demonstration of the role of causal input of spiritual elements on psychoticism
has vast implications on the manner in which the psychiatrist conceptualizes the individual and opens the possibility for potential therapeutic interventions.
They were more stable emotionally and less prone to anxiety, depression, paranoia, psychoticism
, obsessive-compulsive behavior, eating disorders, drinking problems, and other maladies.
The assessment is designed to provide a broad indication of problematic personality traits, focusing on five personality trait domains, including negative effect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism
. Therapists completed the informant version of the same assessment.
Nine subscales of the scale included somatization (S), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), interpersonal sensitiveness (IS), depression (D), anxiety disorder (AD), hostility (H), phobic anxiety (FA), paranoid ideation (PI) and psychoticism
. The additional items (AI) included eating and drinking disorder, sleep disorder, death and death ideation, and feelings of guilt.
Moreover, in post-chemotherapy patients with breast cancer, cancer-related fatigue level was found to be correlated with psychoticism
, extraversion/introversion, neuroticism and lie subscales of EPI (12).
A large study of 4,444 consecutive patients in Taiwan found that those with low total cholesterol (<160 mg/dL) had higher scores of anxiety, phobia, psychoticism
, and aggressive hostility.
The 90 items are divided into 9 subscales, namely somatization (SOM), obsessive-compulsive (O-C), interpersonal sensitivity (I-S), depression (DEP), anxiety (ANX), hostility (HOS), phobic anxiety (PHOB), paranoid ideation (PAR), and psychoticism