analgesia efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine in dentistry: a meta-analysis.
Cold test (ethyl chloride) is commonly used to measure pulpal
The most notable findings were that caries accounted for 22.5% of the dental emergency visits, pulpal
disease requiring endodontic (root canal) therapy accounted for 20%, and visits associated with wisdom teeth (third molars) accounted for 4.2%.
The 21 chapters are by dental and odontology specialists from Europe and Israel who cover the biological processes involved in pulpal
and periapical pathologies and how that knowledge affects clinical management, including procedures like root filling techniques and nonsurgical treatment.
* necrosis of the pulpal
tissues that results in nonvital teeth (less common).
The device is engineered to let the body heal itself and to eliminate the risk of further damage to a tooth from pulpal
They may take dental and medical histories; take and record blood pressures; place and remove rubber dams and dental matrices; apply topical fluoride and topical anesthesia; apply desensitizing agents to cementum and dentin; insert nightguards and athletic mouth-guards; remove sutures and dressings; perform pulpal
vitality tests; fabricate custom trays for dentures and partials; select impression trays; and take alginate impressions for study models, bleaching trays, night guards, and athletic mouth-guards.
According to The American Academy of Endodontics Web page, more than 14 million pulpal
procedures are performed each year in the United States.
Sometimes this bacterial invasion is often the cause of pulpal
necrosis or tooth loss.1,4