In order to determine the duration of the puparial
stage, we allowed flies to attack 9 groups of ants from different colonies for 3 to 4 d each.
Posterior end (post) strongly upturned and higher than the puparial
dorsal surface; spiracular disc shrunken; lobes vestigial, hardened and visible; interspiracular processes stunted, bonded, free, folded or raised.
The isolated puparium was checked once a week, and by October 23th several developing larvae could be observed through the puparial
First observation of parasitic relations between big-headed flies, Nephrocerus Zetterstedt (Diptera: Pipunculidae) and crane flies, Tipula Linnaeus (Diptera: Tipulidae), with larval and puparial
descriptions for the genus Nephrocerus.
Phylogeny and systematics of European predacious Syrphidae from larval and puparial
The correlation between host spittlebug adult length and puparial
length approached but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.46, df = 15, P = 0.062).
The third instar larval mouthhooks and puparial
posterior spiracles were illustrated by Skidmore (1985), based on a single puparium from Turkmenistan and presumably one of the series found on a dead tortoise (Vlassov & Stackelberg, cited in Hennig 1964).
A further demonstration of the huge variation in results are the estimates to achieve 99% mortality of larval and puparial
stages of 407,317 and 38,039 Gy, respectively!
Details of larval and puparial
morphology are presented elsewhere (Kirk-Spriggs et al.
The distance between posterior end of the orifice and puparial
caudal margin measured 155-157 [micro]m long.
Cephaloskeletons (Figs 28, 29) were removed from the ventral puparial
cap by soaking in water overnight and by subsequent maceration in 10 % potassium hydroxide (KOH), mounted on a slide in a thin film of set glycerin jelly and photographed at a range of focal planes with a [R]Nikon TE2000-E compound microscope and digitized using [R]Combine ZP Image Stacking Software.
Tuberculate setae are formed from dorsal elevation of puparial
cuticle, ts slightly swollen on puparial
surface and without articulating circle or groove, surface puffy, with ridges or grooves or minute tubercles, not smooth, gradually narrowing towards apex and forming a socket in which apical seta is fixed.