5 In MSA-P the degenerative changes predominantly affect the basal ganglia, particularly the putamen
seen as hyperintense rim at the putaminal edge, atrophy and hypointensity of putaminal body on T2WI while in MSA-C changes predominantly affect infratentorial structures like pons and cerebellum, seen as atrophy and hyperintense signals in pons, cerebellum and middle cerebellar peduncles with pontine hyperintensity (hot cross bun sign) on axial image,4 which was seen in both of our patient's MRI.
had done a similar study and according to his study the most common site of ICH was the putamen
(34%), followed by the thalamus (33%), lobar areas (15%).
The study also showed that the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the putamen
- a round structure located at the base of the forebrain that is linked to learning - was much more in marijuana users than non-users.
Neurotransmitter imbalance caused by a relative dopamine deficiency in the caudate nucleus and putamen
together with the intracytoplasmic accumulation of [alpha]-synuclein and Lewy body in the major fibrillar component have been considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease (4).
Hypothalamus beneath the Thalamus acts like moon, It is associated with emotion and physiological responses to emotions, Amygdala is Mars that controls the movement, Subthalamus is Mercury, Globus Pallidus is Jupiter, Substancia Nigra is Venus, Putamen
is Saturn, Nucleus Caudatus Head is Ascending Lunar Node, it controls the eye movement and Nucleus Caudatus Tail Descending Lunar Node controls the function of Central Nervous System.
Through a large-scale, international data sharing and data-analysis-sharing effort, we were able to actually successfully identify genetic effects on the hippocampus, putamen
and other brain regions that no one had ever successfully identified genetics effects on before,' said Jessica Turner, associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at Georgia State University.
Using this scheme, the aim was to segment nine mid-brain structures including left ventricle, right ventricle, third ventricle, anterior commissure, posterior commissure, left putamen
, right putamen
, left caudate nucleus and right caudate nucleus.
Four patients had 120 NTCELL microcapsules implanted into the putamen
on each side of their brain, and two patients had sham surgery with no NTCELL implanted.
Subjects with hoarding disorder proved to have significantly greater serotonin transporter binding than healthy controls in the bilateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, putamen
, and right caudate nucleus.
Laboratory tests and other investigations that help diagnosis are Scrub IgM and IgG, Indirect Immunofluorescence test, PCR of specific genomic type, MRI brain in some studies showed diffuse cerebral oedema along with T2 weighted and FLAIR images of hyperintensities in regions of putamen
During motor activation, posterior putamen
and the dorsolateral anterior putamen
receive inputs from motor and motor association cortex [21,51].
The patients were dosed with 20 million CTX cells which were injected by way of a routine surgical procedure into the putamen
, the region of the brain involved in learning and coordinating movement.