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An ancient irrigation system consisting of a tunnel dug at a very slight upward gradient into rising ground so that water from deep within the earth runs out to the surface. Qanats were developed in Persia and later adopted throughout the Middle East and North Africa.

[Persian qanāt, from Arabic qanāh, qanāt-, tube, canal, qanat; akin to Hebrew qāne and Akkadian qanû, reed; see qnw in Semitic roots.]


(Civil Engineering) an underground channel for directing irrigation water
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Officials said more than 100 qanats (underground irrigation channels) were damaged, which could impact the next growing season.
Semsar Yazdi, a speaker on the concept of Qanat water management, and the Director of the International Center on Qanats and Historic Hydraulic Structures in Iran, explains that there are interesting facts about water management in Iran and Indonesia.
He added in the meantime five qanats have been damaged up to 30 percent each, while 40 wells are damaged up to 60 percent each.
Qanats were constructed across the Islamic world to deliver large quantities of water to the surface without a need for pumping; they were also used to transport water over long distances in hot climates.
The Qazvin municipality also received the award for dredging and restoring Qanats (canals) in the Northern parts of the city and for Qazvin Ladies' Park.
Qanats are mostly dug in places where there is no permanent and reliable water on the surface.
Regarding the spreading of oil pollution, the oil pollution of groundwater taken from wells or Qanats has been verified.
Qanats are underground water channels stretching up to 40 kilometers (26 mi) and first used at least 2000 years ago.
Darvish said Iran should forget dams and focus on improving water-use efficiency in the agriculture sector, recycling water, reconstructing qanats and, in case these fail to work, Iran can build desalination plants as a last resort.
A major flood had filled parts of the qanats (aqueduct) with sand and gravel blocked the flow of water.
Due to its climate, it has one of the largest networks of underground aqueducts (qanats) in the world, and its qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran.