Using laser beams, the researchers write a quantum state
onto the ion and simultaneously excite it to emit a photon in which quantum information is stored.
That's because not only the surroundings but even the materials themselves "essentially provide a fluctuating bath that randomly interacts with the electronically excited quantum state
and washes out the coherence," he says.
We infer from (13) that the Nexus graviton (or displacement 4-vector) in the n-th quantum state
forms a trivial vector bundle via the Uncertainty Principle which generates a compact Riemannian manifold of positive Ricci curvature that can be expressed in the form
in 1993 , where one unknown quantum state
could be transmitted via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair with the help of classical information.
When this happens the bosons will all condense into the same quantum state
. When the team added a magnetic field into the picture, the atoms started moving around.
Accordingly, there is no real sudden "jump" from a calculated quantum state
to a measured state.
The researchers developed entangled elementary particles--in this case photons, the smallest units of light--to transmit information through a shared pair of entangled quantum state
The approaches that engineers are now attempting include using trapped ions to perform computations; the Josephson function, which uses photons of light to store data; and quantum teleportation, by which two photons become "entangled," such that, when one goes into a quantum state
, that state transfers to the other photon.
Teleportation enables the transfer of a particle's quantum state
to another particle.
The information in the dual quantum state
needs to be translated back to be useful, so the D-Wave computer adds a layer of processing called annealing.
Quantum algorithm can solve some classical nonpolynomial problems in polynomial time and has many advantages of the superposition, coherence, and entanglement of the quantum state
. So far, the most representative quantum algorithms are the large prime numbers factorization algorithm proposed by Shor  and the quantum searching algorithms in database proposed by Grover  in 1997.