Using laser beams, the researchers write a

quantum state onto the ion and simultaneously excite it to emit a photon in which quantum information is stored.

That's because not only the surroundings but even the materials themselves "essentially provide a fluctuating bath that randomly interacts with the electronically excited

quantum state and washes out the coherence," he says.

The project focuses on the geometric mathematical structures underlying classical-quantum dynamics, with special emphasis on momentum maps (expectation values) arising from unitary representations on the

quantum state space.

We infer from (13) that the Nexus graviton (or displacement 4-vector) in the n-th

quantum state forms a trivial vector bundle via the Uncertainty Principle which generates a compact Riemannian manifold of positive Ricci curvature that can be expressed in the form

in 1993 [1], where one unknown

quantum state could be transmitted via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair with the help of classical information.

When this happens the bosons will all condense into the same

quantum state. When the team added a magnetic field into the picture, the atoms started moving around.

Accordingly, there is no real sudden "jump" from a calculated

quantum state to a measured state.

The researchers developed entangled elementary particles--in this case photons, the smallest units of light--to transmit information through a shared pair of entangled

quantum state of photons.

The approaches that engineers are now attempting include using trapped ions to perform computations; the Josephson function, which uses photons of light to store data; and quantum teleportation, by which two photons become "entangled," such that, when one goes into a

quantum state, that state transfers to the other photon.

Teleportation enables the transfer of a particle's

quantum state to another particle.

The information in the dual

quantum state needs to be translated back to be useful, so the D-Wave computer adds a layer of processing called annealing.

Quantum algorithm can solve some classical nonpolynomial problems in polynomial time and has many advantages of the superposition, coherence, and entanglement of the

quantum state. So far, the most representative quantum algorithms are the large prime numbers factorization algorithm proposed by Shor [6] and the quantum searching algorithms in database proposed by Grover [7] in 1997.