On diagnosis of typhoid fever, majority (55%) of the GP's prescribe quinolones
followed by 3rd generation cephalosporins by 40% GP's, chloramphenicol by 2% GP's and ampicillin/cotrimoxazole by 1%GP's while 2% GP's prescribe other than these drugs (table).
This study searched to verify the possible presence of antibiotic residues in pasteurized and unpasteurized milk, produced and marketed in the microregion of Capanema, State of Parana, Brazil, through qualitative screening methods for detection of four different groups of drugs, [beta]-lactams, tetracyclines, quinolones
and sulfonamides, to map the status of the chemical milk quality in respect of contamination by antibiotic residues.
The overall use of quinolones
to treat CAP, irrespective of severity, in combination or as single agent was > 60%.
maltophilia has identified a novel family of resistance genes (smqnr) encoding proteins containing pentapeptide repeats, which confer low-level resistance to quinolones
The link was seen with many classes of antibiotic - including macrolides, quinolones
, tetracyclines, sulphonamides and metronidazole.
Sulfonamides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones
, and agents for urinary tract infections.
et al.21 in 2009 advocated the use of quinolones
over chloramphenicol, while Effa EE et al.22 in 2011 recommended the use of newer quinolones
like gatifloxacin due to resistance of older quinolones
Five years later we had to stop using quinolones
because more than 10% of gonorrhea was resistant," the venereologist said.
From a search on PubMed and Google with the terms "Legionella", "rhabdomyolysis", and "renal failure" we analysed case reports (Table 1) of 16 patients with the triad of renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and Legionella pneumonia with focus on CK levels, need for dialysis, intensive care admission, outcomes after treatment, and the use of quinolones
, macrolides, or both.
Currently, macrolides are the drugs of choice, with fluoroquinolones as second-line drugs quinolones
Regarding the quinolones
, there are four known mechanisms of resistance that work separately or in combination, resulting in varying degrees of resistance that range from reduced susceptibility to clinically relevant resistance.