The researchers observed a reduction in SCC risk with higher total vitamin A; the pooled multivariate hazard ratios were 0.97 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.07) for quintile
2, 0.97 (95 percent CI, 0.80 to 1.17) for quintile
3, 0.93 (95 percent CI, 0.84 to 1.03) for quintile
4, and 0.83 (95 percent CI, 0.75 to 0.93) for quintile
5, compared with quintile
1 as a reference.
Panel A in Table 1 shows the average returns and basic characteristics of the buy-and-hold strategy for the quintile
Based on this, they devised a scoring formula that gives a person a rating of 1-5 for each of these seven food types, from the lowest quintile
of consumption, which scores 1, to the highest quintile
, which scores 5.
Surprisingly, it has two scores in the second quintile
for individual categories: while purpose is a first-quintile 36, both social and financial are second-quintile scores, at 51 and 44 respectively.
"For both coronary and cardiovascular events, most of the increased risk appears to reside in the uppermost quintile
," the cardiologist observed.
The SPDC study reveals that in Punjab 14 out of 34 districts are in the highest quintile
and only one is in the lowest quintile
This average, however, conceals large gaps: 90.8% of households in the top quintile
(income deciles 9 and 10) owned at least one apartment, compared with 84.4% of households in the fourth quintile
, 78% of households in the third quintile
, 69.3% of households in the second quintile
, and 53.7% of households in the bottom quintile
The researchers calculate a measure for each college that they call its mobility rate, defined as the product of the percentage of students at the college who are drawn from the lowest quintile
of income distribution and the percentage of those students who went on to careers that placed them in the top quintile
of the distribution.
Because the PSID is a panel, we can see which quintile
any family starts in and which quintile
it ends up in.
The authors found that, in 2010, the 50-year-old men in the top income quintile
could expect to live 38.8 more years, to 88.8 years.
And this rate generally holds for residents in the second and third quintiles
. However, there is a three-percentage-point increase to 31% among fourth-quintile states and an even greater jump to 36% among the fifth quintile