Davydova presents a variationist account of quotative
marking in English speaking communities that emerged through colonization and inter-ethnic linguistic practices on the one hand, and on the other hand in the classroom environment and learners' stay-abroad experiences.
With semi-direct speech introduced by the quotative
index omwana waloba 'the child refuses' the comforter quotes the refusal: kutimoni 'a demon'.
Julia Davydova also adopts a corpus-based approach in "Indian English Quotatives
in a Real-Time Perspective" (173-204) and considers a hitherto unexplored area in the context of Indian English: the use of the quotative
Moreover, at present like is also acquiring a number of additional uses, as a quotative
marker and a pragmatic marker (for more information on the different uses of like in PDE, see Meehan 1991; Romaine and Lange 1991; Dailey-O'Cain 2000; Iyeiri et al.
In addition, "like" has become more common as it has grown to have a quotative
use in the last 20 to 25 years (for example, Ferrara & Bell, 1995; Dailey-O'Cain, 2000).
Chapter three discusses Charlotte Smith's frequent novelistic use of copying, repetition, and imitation--often criticized as derivativeness or even literary theft--as a kind of knowing rebellion against her exclusion from the literary canon: "Smith's quotative
practice thus imbeds within the form of her novels her exile not only from the literary community, but from literary history more broadly.
I am unable to see how Yasomatiti (the proper name attached to the enclitic quotative
iti to mark the title) could betray a Prakrit origin.
To return to sluicing, I note that Dutch has a construction with van 'of, sometimes referred to as quotative
van, which may involve a kind of non-wh sluicing (Temmerman 2013 calls them embedded fragment answers).
Among the topics are a grammatical sketch, segmental phonology, nominal and adjectival compounds, ideophones and onomatopoeia, postpositions and adverbials, verbal derivation, verb phrases and predicate structure, relativization and clause nominalization, clause chaining and subordination, quotative
constructions, and grammatical pragmatics.
forms, such as tulevat 'said to come', which originated from the northern border dialects of South Estonian.
Polyfunctional like can perform functions such as a dramatisation of internal feelings (Romaine and Lange 1991) or be a quotative
verb (Tagliamonte and Hudson, 1999) both of which are conversational devices that accommodate to the interview setting.
uses of like (as discussed by Ferrara and Bell, 1995; and Romaine and Lange, 1991) foreground reported speech and thought, and therefore, would constitute a single category on their own (see also Buchstaller and D'Arcy, 2009).