According to Princeton sociologist Thomas Espenshade's research on the de facto race-norming
carried out by college admissions offices, to have the same chance to be admitted to a selective private university, an Asian applicant has to score 140 points higher on the Scholastic Aptitude Test than an otherwise similarly qualified white applicant (out of a possible total of 1,600), 270 points higher than a Hispanic applicant, and 450 points higher than a black applicant.
93) The main problem with this characterization is that it relies on cases where race was specifically taken into account in the decision to promote, whether by race-norming the test results or by race-based eligibility lists.
The new standard also follows logically with established precedent that prohibits the race-norming of test results.
Never mind that the quota systems of Nigeria and Malaysia have never been enacted here; never mind that while India has extended its terribly amorphous category of "backward classes," the United States has backed away from controversial practices like set-asides and race-norming
Three years ago, while defending race-norming
in college admissions and a dizzying array of campus "diversity" programs that transform everyone with a dark skin into a walking placard for disadvantage, Rutgers University president Francis Lawrence slid, infamously, into lingo about blacks' "genetic hereditary background.
Edley puts his method to the test in a set of "hard cases," only one of which, the race-norming of test scores, flunks.
Even his rejection of race-norming is qualified by the caveat that race-norming ought not be a problem if we do not believe in the underlying validity of the test.
Moreover, the 1991 Act's prohibition against race-norming
standardized tests strengthens the conclusion that undiluted distributive equality is not the objective at which the statute aims.