The same fact holds good with flowering plants, of which the two main divisions have been founded on characters derived from the embryo,--on the number and position of the embryonic leaves or cotyledons, and on the mode of development of the plumule and radicle
. In our discussion on embryology, we shall see why such characters are so valuable, on the view of classification tacitly including the idea of descent.
The soil, it appears, is suited to the seed, for it has sent its radicle
downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence.
In summary, we observed in the present work that the loss of desiccation tolerance in Anadenanthera colubrina seeds begins at the first hours of imbibition and it is complete after radicle
According to data analysis, significant differences were observed between treatments (Table 1 and 2), except for panicle length (PL), coleoptile length (CL) and radicle
After 10 hours of treatment, the seeds were checked for germination, seedling emergence, plumule length and radicle
Germination starts with absorption of water, resulting in expansion and elongation of seed embryo and is completed when radicle
protrudes from seed covering (Hermann et al., 2007).
Bakhtyary and Hamedy  showed that in studying the effects of salinity stress on kidney beans, increasing salinity resulted to signifisant decreasing effect on rate and percentage of germination and also decreased the vegetative traits such as; radicle
and plumule length, fresh weight of radicle
and plumule, and plumule dry weight.
The germination process starts with water uptake by the seed, leading to a number of metabolic changes which culminate in radicle
protrusion (NONOGAKI et al., 2010).
Although the germination is not completed, metabolic activities that prepare seeds for radicle
protrusion may be initiated during priming [4, 5].
oleifera hybrid embryos displayed no significant differences in average values observed for shoot emergence per experimental unit under distinct glucose treatments (n = 45, F = 2.337, p = 0.115) but significantly higher averages (n = 45, F = 13.742, p < 0.001 and Tukey, p < 0.05) were observed for radicle
emergence under glucose 20 (110mM) and 30g/L (165mM) (Table 1).
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(each as defined below); a lease agreement with Spot Therapeutics Inc.